Jumat, 04 Juni 2010

Language Teaching Seminar

This is for the students who take Language Teaching Seminar Subject. Please write a paper about language teaching method that you can apply in the classroom!

274 komentar:

  1. Applying Communicative Teaching Method
    in English Teaching Classroom
    BY : BIIZNILLAH


    A. INTRODUCTION
    Teaching is an activity or an act doing by someone to make or to explain anything by giving instruction, explanation or training to guide someone or group in order to make them understand. Teaching children, teenagers, and adult are different in many ways. Teaching children require special way (technique) and method. In this research paper the writer analyses and discusses about the teaching method.
    Communicative language teaching is generally accepted in the field of second language teaching. In this paper, the wretre introduces a model of communicative language teaching. The authors also mention some practical requirements and methods in the application of this model, such as authentic materials and group work.
    Many repetitions while students listen are ideal for the very beginning student since they need to hear the sounds of English and the voice inflections several times before they can be expected to reproduce them. We want students to enjoy their lessons and to feel unthreatened by them, because in a comfortable setting they will learn more easily.
    In this approach, according to Littlewood (1981). He divided the communicative approach into pre-communicative and communicative activities. Here is a visual of his way of teaching. Pre-communicative Structural activities The pre-communicative activities are preparatory steps towards communicative activities. The teachers should analyse all the communicative abilities and then let the students practise them one by one. The aim is for learners to practise using language they will need when ac tually communicating. There are two types of pre-communicative activities. The first type mainly concerns about structural activities. These are much like the grammar exercises in which the teacher teaches the students how to use grammatical rules in their communications. For example, the teacher may teach the students how to use intensifiers by making sentences like the following: I was very late for the film. But I wasn’t too late for the film. These two sentences show the differences of “very” and “too”. We can also use audio-visual ways of teaching, asking students to do substitution exercises, repetition exercises, etc.
    The second type is quasi-communication activities which are intended to help learners relate the structures. Some quasi-communicative activities include: (1) Situationaldialogues; (2) Open-ended dialogues; (3) Timetable, map, food list, shopping list, etc.
    For several reason, every type of communicative activity more dominant used by the teacher in the recent time because those more efectivelly to improve student ability in English.

    BalasHapus
  2. CONTINUE.....


    B. Communicative Approach and activity
    There are two types of communicative activities. The first kind is functional communicative activities. Functional communicative activities include such tasks as learners comparing sets of pictures and noting similarities and dissimilarities; working out a likely sequence of events in a set of pictures; discovering missing features in a map or picture; one learner communicating behind a screen to another learner and giving instructions on how to draw a picture or shape, or how to complete a map by following directions. Social interaction activities include conversation and discussion sessions, dialogues and role-play, simulations, skits, improvisations and debates. The purpose of these kinds of activities is to let the learners use the language they have learnt to put across their ideas in oral presentations. Learners have to solve problems, seek information and make decisions about what is proper to say or to do.
    The second kind is social interaction activities: the main purpose of this activity is to give the learners an opportunity to use the language in an appropriate social context, to create a variety of social situations and relationships, such as having pair work, group work, having conversations, simulations and role-playing and so on and so forth.

    BalasHapus
  3. CONTINUE....

    C. The Authentic Materials Are Useful to Teach Students to Communicate in English
    The definition of authentic materials used in this paper is taken from Peacock (1997): materials that have been produced to fulfill some social purpose in the language community. As a teacher, we quite often find ourselves so closely bound by the textbook that we ignore how useful other material can be. It is necessary to point out that students need exposure to lots and lots of authentic materials. Real communication in English takes place around very real materials. Using authentic material in the classroom, even when not done in an authentic situation, provided it is appropriately exploited, is significant for many reasons, amongst which are:
    1. Students are exposed to real discourse, as in videos of interviews with famous people where intermediate students listen for gist.
    2. Authentic materials keep students informed about what is happening in the world, so they have an intrinsic educational value. As teachers, we are educators working within the school system, so education and general development are part of our responsibilities (Sanderson, 1999).
    3. Language changes are reflected in the materials so that students and teachers can keep pace with such changes.
    4. Reading texts are ideal to teach/practice mini-skills such as scanning, skimming. For example, students are given a news article and asked to look for specific information. The teacher can have students practice some of the micro-skills mentioned by Richards (1983), e.g. students listen to news reports and they are asked to identify the names of countries, famous people, etc. (ability to detect key words).
    5. It is highly motivated if students are given the chance to choose the topics and kinds of authentic materials in which they are interested.

    As can be seen, using authentic materials is a relatively easy and convenient way of improving not only the students’ general skills, but also their confidence in a real situation. Teachers can easily find their authentic materials from newspapers, TV programs, menus, magazines, Internet, movies, songs, brochures, comics, literature (novels, poems and short stories), and so forth. The recommendation is that teachers need to choose some material, the vocabulary of which might be relevant to the students’ English level. “An acquirer can move from a stage I (where I is the acquirer’s level of competence) to a stage I+1(where I+1 is the stage immediately following I along some natural order) by understanding language containing I+1”. (Krashen and Terrel, 1983: 31)
    Therefore, the materials chosen should be a little bit challenging compared with the students’ English level. The authentic materials will motivate learners. It is a constructive way in applying CLT in classrooms.

    BalasHapus
  4. continue.......

    E. CONCLUSSION
    After explain the several definition and and applications of communicative teaching, the author concluse that As a teaching approach, communicative language teaching is gaining more and more importance in the ESL classrooms. As it is the case, many things are connected with each other, so the successful use ofcommunicative teaching approach depends on the confidence and motivation of the students, depends on the teaching atmosphere of the classrooms, depends on the authenticity of the materials and even the cultural or educational background of the students.



    BIBLIOGRAPHY

    Littlewood, W.. Communicative Language Teaching: An Introduction. New York: Cambridge University Press. 1981.

    Breen, M. and Candlin, C.. The Essentials of a Communicative Curriculum in Language Teaching. Applied Linguistics, 1. 1979(2): 99-104.

    Johnson, T. R. and Smith, J. W.. A Framework for Opportunistic Abductive Strategies. In Proceedings of the Thirteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. 1991: 760-764.

    Krashen, Stephen D. and Terrell, Tracy D.. The Natural Approach: Language Acquisition in the Classroom. Hayward, CA: Alemany Press. 1983.

    Richards, J. C. and Rodgers, T. S.. Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching: A Description and Analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1986.

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  5. CONTINUE.......


    D. Group Work

    1. The advantages of group activity in communicative teaching classes
    (1) Interdependence of the members in the group: Group members will need to rely on one another to finish the assignments on time.
    (2) Individual responsibility: Members of the group will have their own responsibility for doing their share of the work.
    (3) Appropriate use of interpersonal skills: Students will gain skills in leadership, decision-making, communication, and conflict management, all abilities that will be crucial for them to master when they go out into the “real world.”

    2. Some requirements for group work
    (1) Create group tasks that require interdependence. The students in a group must perceive that they are in the same boat that each member is responsible to and dependent on all the others and that one cannot succeed unless all members in the group succeed. Knowing that peers are relying on them is a powerful motivator for group work (Kohn, 1986). Strategies for promoting interdependence include specifying common rewards for the group, encouraging students to divide up the labor, and formulating tasks that compel students to reach a consensus. (Johnson and Smith, 1991)
    (2) Make the group work relevant. Students must perceive the group tasks as integral to the course objectives, not just busy work. Some teachers believe that group work is most successful if it involved the work with making judgment on the part of the students. For example, in an engineering class, the teacher gives groups a problem to solve: Determine whether the city should purchase twenty-five or fifty buses. Each group prepares a report, and a representative from each group is randomly selected to present the group’s solution to the class. The approaches used by the various groups are compared and discussed by the entire class. Then the whole class comes to a decision.
    (3) Create assignments that fit the students’ skills and abilities. Early in the term, assign relatively easy tasks. As students become more knowledgeable, increase the difficulty level. For example, a teacher teaching researchmethods begins by having students simply recognize various research designs and sampling procedures. Later, team members generate their own research designs. At the end of the term, each team prepares a proposal for a research project and submits it to another team for evaluation. (Cooper and Associates, 1990)
    (4) Assign tasks that give every member of the group a share of the work. Try to structure the tasks so that each group member can make an equal contribution. For example, one teacher asks groups to write a report on alternative energy sources. Each member of the group is responsible for research on one source, and then all the members work together to incorporate the individual contributions into the final report. Another teacher asks groups to prepare a “medieval newspaper.” Students research aspects of life in the Middle Ages, and each student contributes one major article for the newspaper, which includes news stories, feature stories, and editorials. Students conduct their research independently and use group meetings to share information, edit articles, proofread, and design the pages. (Smith, 1986; Tiberius, 1990) Teachers should also set definite rules for each group with each member of the group has his certain responsibility. Teachers should fill in the progress form regularly and also make assessment during the process. Thus the students will have a sense of achievement

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  12. F. The Aplication of TPR
    A method or technique in teaching and learning process must be developed in order to get a better purpose for a better life. TPR was developed in order to improve the better result of teaching learning process of a new language. Teachers who use TPR believe in the importance of having the students enjoy their experience in learning to communicate a foreign language.
    According to Larsen-Freeman (2000: 113), TPR was develop in order to reduce the stress people feel when studying foreign languages and thereby encourage students to persist in their study beyond a beginning level of proficiency.
    Richard and Rodgers (1986: 91) say: “The general objectives of Total Physical Response are to teach oral proficiency at a beginning level. Comprehension is a mean to an end, and the ultimate aim is to give basic speaking skills. TPR aims to produce learners who are capable of an uninhibited communication that is intelligible to a native speaker”.
    From the statement above, there are some objectives of Total Physical
    Response:
    1) Teaching oral proficiency at a beginning level.
    2) Using comprehension as a means to speaking
    3) Using action-based drills in the imperative form
    1. The Teacher and Learners Role in TPR
    In the teaching learning process using TPR method, the learners and the
    teacher play different roles.
    1) Learners Role
    Learners in TPR have the primary roles of listeners and performers. They
    listen attentively and respond both individually and collectively. They have little influence over the content of learning since the content is determined by the teacher who must follow the imperative form for lesson (Richard and Rodgers 1986:93).
    According to Larsen and Freeman (2000: 113), the students are imitators of the teacher’s nonverbal model. There will be a role reversal with individual students directing the teacher and the other students.In TPR, learners monitor and evaluate their own progress. They are
    encouraged to speak when they feel ready to speak that is when a sufficient basis in the language has been internalized.
    2) Teacher Role
    In the teaching learning process using TPR method, teacher plays an active and direct role. According to Larsen and Freeman (2000: 113) teacher is the director of all students’ behaviors.
    Asher (1977) as quoted by Richard and Rodgers, (1986: 93) states “The
    instructor is the director of a stage play in which the students are the actors”. It means that teacher is the one who decides what to teach, who models and presents the new material, and who selects supporting materials for classroom use. Teacher is encouraged to be well prepared and well organized so that the lesson flows smoothly and predictable.

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  13. C. Conclussion
    After explain the several definition and and applications of TPR teaching, the author concluse that As a teaching methode, total phsycal response is gaining more and more importance in the ESL classrooms. As it is the case, many things are connected with each other, so the successful use ofeomniunicative teaching methode depends on the confidence and motivation of the students, depends on the teaching atmosphere of the classrooms, depends on the authenticity of the materials and even the cultural or educational background of the students.

    BIBLYOGRAPHI
    Richards, J. C. and Rodgers, T. S.. Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching: A Description and Analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1986.

    Johnson, T. R. and Smith, J. W.. A Framework for Opportunistic Abductive Strategies. In Proceedings of the Thirteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. 1991: 760-764.

    Krashen, Stephen D. and Terrell, Tracy D.. The Natural Approach: Language Acquisition in the Classroom. Hayward, CA:Alemany Press. 1983.

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  14. 2. The Principles of Total Physical Response
    Before applying the TPR method for teaching a foreign language, in this case is English, a teacher should understand its principles well so he will be able to use it properly in the teaching learning process. Asher as the developer of TPR elaborates the principles of this method, they are:
    1) Second language learning is parallel to first language learning and should
    reflect the same naturalistic process
    2) Listening should develop before speaking
    3) Children respond physically to spoken language, and adult learners learn
    better if they do that too
    4) Once listening comprehension has been develop, speech develops
    naturally and effortlessly out of it
    5) Delaying speech reduces stress. (www.tprsource.com/asher.htm)
    Moreover, Larsen and Freeman (2000: 111) describe several principles in
    teaching learning process by using TPR upon which the teacher’s behaviors is based. The principles of TPR are as follow:
    1) Meaning in the target language can often be conveyed through action. Memory
    is activated through learners’ response. The target language should not be
    presented in chunks; not just word by word.
    2) The students’ understanding of the target language should be developed before
    speaking.
    3) Students can initially learn one part of the language rapidly by moving their
    bodies.
    4) The imperative is powerful linguistic device through which the teacher can
    direct student behavior.
    5) Students can learn through observing actions as well as by performing the action
    themselves.
    6) Feeling of success and low anxiety facilitate learning.
    7) Students should not be made to memorize fixed routines.
    8) Correction should be carried out in an unobtrusive manner.
    9) Students must not develop flexibility in understanding a novel combination of
    target language chunks. They need to understand more than the exact sentences
    used in training.
    10) Language learning is more effective when it is fun.
    11) Spoken language should be emphasized over written language.
    12) Students will begin to speak when they are ready.
    13) Students are expected to make errors when they first begin speaking. Work on
    the fine details of the language should be postponed until students have become
    somewhat proficient.
    According to the principles above, it can be concluded that students will understand the meaning of the vocabulary items easily if they use their bodies while
    they are learning. In the learning, students should feel successful and they do not feel pessimistic.
    A teacher should be careful in correcting the students’ mistakes. Correcting
    the mistakes improperly will make the students fell desperate. Therefore, an English
    teacher must be able to create flexibility in the class room. Another important thing is that the new vocabulary should be presented in a context not word by word.

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  18. Applying Communicative Teaching Method
    in English Teaching Classroom
    BY : BIIZNILLAH


    A. INTRODUCTION
    Teaching is an activity or an act doing by someone to make or to explain anything by giving instruction, explanation or training to guide someone or group in order to make them understand. Teaching children, teenagers, and adult are different in many ways. Teaching children require special way (technique) and method. In this research paper the writer analyses and discusses about the teaching method.
    Communicative language teaching is generally accepted in the field of second language teaching. In this paper, the wretre introduces a model of communicative language teaching. The authors also mention some practical requirements and methods in the application of this model, such as authentic materials and group work.
    Many repetitions while students listen are ideal for the very beginning student since they need to hear the sounds of English and the voice inflections several times before they can be expected to reproduce them. We want students to enjoy their lessons and to feel unthreatened by them, because in a comfortable setting they will learn more easily.
    In this approach, according to Littlewood (1981). He divided the communicative approach into pre-communicative and communicative activities. Here is a visual of his way of teaching. Pre-communicative Structural activities The pre-communicative activities are preparatory steps towards communicative activities. The teachers should analyse all the communicative abilities and then let the students practise them one by one. The aim is for learners to practise using language they will need when ac tually communicating. There are two types of pre-communicative activities. The first type mainly concerns about structural activities. These are much like the grammar exercises in which the teacher teaches the students how to use grammatical rules in their communications. For example, the teacher may teach the students how to use intensifiers by making sentences like the following: I was very late for the film. But I wasn’t too late for the film. These two sentences show the differences of “very” and “too”. We can also use audio-visual ways of teaching, asking students to do substitution exercises, repetition exercises, etc.
    The second type is quasi-communication activities which are intended to help learners relate the structures. Some quasi-communicative activities include: (1) Situationaldialogues; (2) Open-ended dialogues; (3) Timetable, map, food list, shopping list, etc.
    For several reason, every type of communicative activity more dominant used by the teacher in the recent time because those more efectivelly to improve student ability in English.

    BalasHapus
  19. B. Communicative Approach and activity
    There are two types of communicative activities. The first kind is functional communicative activities. Functional communicative activities include such tasks as learners comparing sets of pictures and noting similarities and dissimilarities; working out a likely sequence of events in a set of pictures; discovering missing features in a map or picture; one learner communicating behind a screen to another learner and giving instructions on how to draw a picture or shape, or how to complete a map by following directions. Social interaction activities include conversation and discussion sessions, dialogues and role-play, simulations, skits, improvisations and debates. The purpose of these kinds of activities is to let the learners use the language they have learnt to put across their ideas in oral presentations. Learners have to solve problems, seek information and make decisions about what is proper to say or to do.
    The second kind is social interaction activities: the main purpose of this activity is to give the learners an opportunity to use the language in an appropriate social context, to create a variety of social situations and relationships, such as having pair work, group work, having conversations, simulations and role-playing and so on and so forth.

    BalasHapus
  20. C. The Authentic Materials Are Useful to Teach Students to Communicate in English
    The definition of authentic materials used in this paper is taken from Peacock (1997): materials that have been produced to fulfill some social purpose in the language community. As a teacher, we quite often find ourselves so closely bound by the textbook that we ignore how useful other material can be. It is necessary to point out that students need exposure to lots and lots of authentic materials. Real communication in English takes place around very real materials. Using authentic material in the classroom, even when not done in an authentic situation, provided it is appropriately exploited, is significant for many reasons, amongst which are:
    1. Students are exposed to real discourse, as in videos of interviews with famous people where intermediate students listen for gist.
    2. Authentic materials keep students informed about what is happening in the world, so they have an intrinsic educational value. As teachers, we are educators working within the school system, so education and general development are part of our responsibilities (Sanderson, 1999).
    3. Language changes are reflected in the materials so that students and teachers can keep pace with such changes.
    4. Reading texts are ideal to teach/practice mini-skills such as scanning, skimming. For example, students are given a news article and asked to look for specific information. The teacher can have students practice some of the micro-skills mentioned by Richards (1983), e.g. students listen to news reports and they are asked to identify the names of countries, famous people, etc. (ability to detect key words).
    5. It is highly motivated if students are given the chance to choose the topics and kinds of authentic materials in which they are interested.

    As can be seen, using authentic materials is a relatively easy and convenient way of improving not only the students’ general skills, but also their confidence in a real situation. Teachers can easily find their authentic materials from newspapers, TV programs, menus, magazines, Internet, movies, songs, brochures, comics, literature (novels, poems and short stories), and so forth. The recommendation is that teachers need to choose some material, the vocabulary of which might be relevant to the students’ English level. “An acquirer can move from a stage I (where I is the acquirer’s level of competence) to a stage I+1(where I+1 is the stage immediately following I along some natural order) by understanding language containing I+1”. (Krashen and Terrel, 1983: 31)
    Therefore, the materials chosen should be a little bit challenging compared with the students’ English level. The authentic materials will motivate learners. It is a constructive way in applying CLT in classrooms.

    BalasHapus
  21. E. CONCLUSSION
    After explain the several definition and and applications of communicative teaching, the author concluse that As a teaching approach, communicative language teaching is gaining more and more importance in the ESL classrooms. As it is the case, many things are connected with each other, so the successful use ofcommunicative teaching approach depends on the confidence and motivation of the students, depends on the teaching atmosphere of the classrooms, depends on the authenticity of the materials and even the cultural or educational background of the students.



    BIBLIOGRAPHY

    Littlewood, W.. Communicative Language Teaching: An Introduction. New York: Cambridge University Press. 1981.

    Breen, M. and Candlin, C.. The Essentials of a Communicative Curriculum in Language Teaching. Applied Linguistics, 1. 1979(2): 99-104.

    Johnson, T. R. and Smith, J. W.. A Framework for Opportunistic Abductive Strategies. In Proceedings of the Thirteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. 1991: 760-764.

    Krashen, Stephen D. and Terrell, Tracy D.. The Natural Approach: Language Acquisition in the Classroom. Hayward, CA: Alemany Press. 1983.

    Richards, J. C. and Rodgers, T. S.. Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching: A Description and Analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1986.

    BalasHapus
  22. D. Group Work

    1. The advantages of group activity in communicative teaching classes
    (1) Interdependence of the members in the group: Group members will need to rely on one another to finish the assignments on time.
    (2) Individual responsibility: Members of the group will have their own responsibility for doing their share of the work.
    (3) Appropriate use of interpersonal skills: Students will gain skills in leadership, decision-making, communication, and conflict management, all abilities that will be crucial for them to master when they go out into the “real world.”

    2. Some requirements for group work
    (1) Create group tasks that require interdependence. The students in a group must perceive that they are in the same boat that each member is responsible to and dependent on all the others and that one cannot succeed unless all members in the group succeed. Knowing that peers are relying on them is a powerful motivator for group work (Kohn, 1986). Strategies for promoting interdependence include specifying common rewards for the group, encouraging students to divide up the labor, and formulating tasks that compel students to reach a consensus. (Johnson and Smith, 1991)
    (2) Make the group work relevant. Students must perceive the group tasks as integral to the course objectives, not just busy work. Some teachers believe that group work is most successful if it involved the work with making judgment on the part of the students. For example, in an engineering class, the teacher gives groups a problem to solve: Determine whether the city should purchase twenty-five or fifty buses. Each group prepares a report, and a representative from each group is randomly selected to present the group’s solution to the class. The approaches used by the various groups are compared and discussed by the entire class. Then the whole class comes to a decision.
    (3) Create assignments that fit the students’ skills and abilities. Early in the term, assign relatively easy tasks. As students become more knowledgeable, increase the difficulty level. For example, a teacher teaching researchmethods begins by having students simply recognize various research designs and sampling procedures. Later, team members generate their own research designs. At the end of the term, each team prepares a proposal for a research project and submits it to another team for evaluation. (Cooper and Associates, 1990)
    (4) Assign tasks that give every member of the group a share of the work. Try to structure the tasks so that each group member can make an equal contribution. For example, one teacher asks groups to write a report on alternative energy sources. Each member of the group is responsible for research on one source, and then all the members work together to incorporate the individual contributions into the final report. Another teacher asks groups to prepare a “medieval newspaper.” Students research aspects of life in the Middle Ages, and each student contributes one major article for the newspaper, which includes news stories, feature stories, and editorials. Students conduct their research independently and use group meetings to share information, edit articles, proofread, and design the pages. (Smith, 1986; Tiberius, 1990) Teachers should also set definite rules for each group with each member of the group has his certain responsibility. Teachers should fill in the progress form regularly and also make assessment during the process. Thus the students will have a sense of achievement

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  23. THE APPLICATION OF TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE
    IN TEACHING ENGLISH VOCABULARY
    By. DEWI SUASTINUARI





    A. Introduction
    Learning a foreign language is not as easy as learning native language. In learning a foreign language, the learners may meet all kinds of learning problems dealing with vocabulary, sound system, and how to arrange words into sentences that are quite different from those native languages. In line with this, Ramelan (1994: 4) states:
    “If someone wants to learn a foreign language, he will obviously meet with all kinds of learning problems. The difficulties have to do with the learning of sounds system, the learning of new vocabulary items, and the learning of the unfamiliar ways of arranging the foreign words into sentences”.

    Like any other learners of English as a foreign language, Indonesian learners
    also meet difficulties in learning English since their native language is quite different from English. Learning a foreign language which is quite different from native language is very difficult for Indonesian learners. Consequently, the learners should have a great motivation. They should be serious in learning English because learning
    language actually needs a total physical, intellectual, and emotional response.In teaching a foreign language, a teacher should have an objective. The common objective of teaching a foreign language is to make learners to be able to communicate by using the target language orally and written form. According to Brown (1980: 8),” teaching is guiding and facilitating learning, enabling, and setting the condition for learning”. There are some factors that should be considered before teaching a foreignlanguage such as English. Those factors are “age, ability, aspiration and need, nativelanguage, and previous language experience” (Finocchiaro, 1974: 14). By that statement, it can be concluded that the material which is going to be presented should be based on the learners’ age, ability, aspiration and need, native language, and previous language experience.

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  24. C. Definition of Vocabulary
    Vocabulary is one of the language components which has to be mastered by
    the students in learning a new language. They students will get difficulties in using
    English if they are lack of vocabularies. Webster (1983: 2046) defines vocabulary as:
    1) A list of words, and sometimes, phrase, usually arranged an alphabetical
    order and defined: a dictionary, glossary, or lexicon.
    2) All the words of a language.
    3) All the words used by a particular person, class, profession, etc;
    ‘sometimes’, all the words recognized and understood by a particular person, although not necessarily used by him (in full, passive vocabulary). Similarly, Hornby (1995: 1331) defines vocabulary as:
    1) The total number of words in language.
    2) All the words know to a person or used in a particular book, subject, etc.
    3) A list of words with their meanings, especially one that accompanies a
    text book in a foreign language.
    According to the definitions above it can be concluded that vocabulary is a
    stock of words in a language, written or spoken, with meaning that considered as
    cultural meaning used by group or individual community.

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  25. B. The Elementary School English Teacher
    Teacher is the important factor in teaching and learning process. He has a great responsibility to transfer his knowledge and skill to the students, to guide them in developing their mind, and to educate them on how to absorb, to analyze, and to expand their individual knowledge and skill.
    There are some characteristics of the elementary school English teacher. They are:
    1) Encourage students to read in English (stories, comics, reading games)
    2) Encourage them to work meaning out for themselves.
    3) Explain thing about language.
    4) Use a wider range of language input as their model for language use.
    5) Encourage creative writing and help them to experiment with the language. (Slattrey, 2002: 5)
    According to the statements above, it is important for the elementary school English teacher to be more creative in teaching, for example by using some interesting media and method. Therefore, the students will enjoy the lesson more.

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  26. D. Teaching English Vocabulary Elementary School
    Teaching elementary school is considered as teaching children. In this case, vocabulary is very important to be mastered first. For this reason, teacher should pay more attention to the teaching and learning English vocabulary to children as he learners. Teacher should choose and apply some teaching techniques and media which are suitable with the students’ needs based on the curriculum.
    Notion (1978: 27) states that a good vocabulary teaching technique has the
    following things:
    1) It attracts the learners.
    2) It makes the learners give attention to the form meaning or use of the words.
    3) It gives a chance for repetition.
    Teaching vocabulary plays important role in language acquisition because the mastery of vocabulary will help students in mastery all the language skills; is tening, speaking, reading, and writing. Vocabulary will make the students practice the structure more easily; it is useful for the students in order to communicate in daily life and will strengthen belief that English can be used to express some ideas or feeling they express in their native language (Finocchiaro, 1974: 38)
    In teaching vocabulary, teacher should not give it separately word by word. It will make the students know the words just the way they are without understanding how to apply the words whether in spoken or written into sentences or paragraph. As stated by Charty (1995:64), that the best way of teaching vocabulary is not teaching the students to memorize but also teaching them to pronounce, to spell, and to use it in context.
    It is very important to master vocabulary first by children who are learning a
    foreign language. For this reason, teacher should pay more attention to the teaching
    vocabulary to children. Vocabulary should not rely on the spoken words only; teacher should try to give as clearly as possible the explanation of the meaning of the words being taught by showing picture, dramatizing, illustrating, paraphrasing, or giving the similarity with their native language.
    In teaching vocabulary, teacher should be able to distinguish the students’
    level. He has to be able to manage the teaching vocabulary effectively in order to
    achieve a target. He has to select the suitable words to be taught. Haycraft (1983: 44) states that the choice of words should be based on the following consideration:

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  27. E. Definition of Total Physical Response
    Total Physical Response (TPR) is one of new methods developed by James Asher, a professor of psychology at San José State University, California, USA, to aid learning foreign language. TPR is a language learning method which is based on the coordination of speech and action. It is linked to the trace theory of memory, which holds that the more often or intensively a memory connection is traced, the stronger memory will be. In TPR classroom, students respond to commands that require physical movement.
    Asher defines that the method of TPR relies on the assumption that when learning a second language or a foreign language, that language is internalized through a process that is similar to first language development and that the process allows for long period of listening and developing comprehension prior to production (www.wikipedia.com)
    Richard and Rodgers (1986: 87) state that TPR is a language teaching method built around the coordination of speech and action; it attempts to teach language through physical (motor) activity.
    Garcia (2001: 1) explains that the two very important concepts in TPR are the notion of Total Physical Response involvement and the role played by the right hemisphere of the brain in learning a second language by action. The first concept deals with the idea of introducing second language by giving action response which has been influenced by the way people acquire their first 16 language. A baby would not memorize a list of words or try to speak immediately. They just listen first to the other family members and then act or do thing in response to their utterances. In the next period he would speak if he was ready to. Nevertheless at first, he would listen and carry out actions or respond physically to him. The second one relates to the brain hemisphere. Our brain is divided into two parts, left and right hemispheres. Scientists had found that the left and the right hemisphere were two independent neurogical entities having different functions both account for different responsibilities (Garcia, 2001:1)
    Garcia explains further that the TPR approach is a right brain method of learning a language because the language is taught mainly through actions. In the other words, commands play as the core of the course.
    TPR is based on the premise that the human brain has a biological program from acquiring any natural language in the world including the sign language of the deaf. The process is visible when we observe how infants internalize their first language (www.tprsource.com/asher.htm). Asher looks to the way that children combine both verbal and physical aspects. A child responds physically to the speech for the parent. The responses of the child are in turn positively reinforced by the speech of the parent. For many months the child absorbs the language without being able to speak. With TPR the teacher tries to mimic this process in class (www.tprworld.com/organizing).
    TPR is also named the comprehension approach since of the importance given
    to listening comprehension. In TPR, students listen and respond to the spoken target language commands of their teacher. If they can perform the teacher’s instructions it means that they know the meaning of the words.
    From the explanation above, the writer concludes that TPR places more emphasis on the link between word and action. The activity, where a command is given in the imperative and the learners obey the command, is the main activity of TPR. Therefore, it will be easier for the students to recall the words they have earned if they use their body in learning vocabulary items. The powerful method of TPR is best applied to introduce new vocabulary and new grammatical feature at any level. TPR can be varied in any different activities such as storytelling, dialogue, games, or a pattern drill.

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  28. 1) Comments words
    They are words which are commonly used for the worlds that students need.
    2) Students’ need
    The words needed by the students are usually worth and important to be taught
    to the students.
    According to Wallace (1982: 27), there are six principles on which teaching
    vocabulary is to be based; they are
    1) Aims
    In teaching learning process, a teacher has to be clear about the aims of
    teaching learning process itself. He has to decide on what is involved in vocabulary learning. He has to decide the words which should be mastered by the students. He should consider how many lists of words he expects the learners to achieve and what kind of word they are.
    2) Quantity
    Teacher may have to decide the number of vocabulary items to be learnt. How many new words in the lesson can be achieved by the learners. If there are too many words, they may be confused, discouraged, and frustrated.

    3) Need
    In teaching vocabulary, teacher has to choose the words really needed by the students. The students should be put in situation where they have t communicate and get the words they need.
    4) Frequent Exposure and Repetitions
    In teaching vocabulary of a foreign language teachers can not only teach new
    words once. They have to repeat them to make sure the students have already
    remembered and understood them. There must be a certain amount of repetition until there is evidence that the students have learnt the target words
    5) Meaningful Presentation
    The learners must have a clear and specific understanding of what it denotes
    or refers to, i.e. its meaning involves many other things as well. This requires that the words can be presented in such a way that its denotation or reference is perfectly clear and unambiguous.
    6) Situation Presentation
    The choice of words can be various according to the situation in which we are
    speaking and according to how well we know the person whom we are talking to (from formal to informal). Therefore, students should learn words in situations that are appropriate to them.
    According to the explanation above, it can be concluded that teacher should
    teach vocabulary to their students in classroom though it can be gained through experience. In teaching vocabulary, teacher has to understand the aim of teaching vocabulary. When teachers presents new vocabulary, they should primarily try to enable the students to recognize the words and their meanings perfectly and clear, to
    use the word appropriately well depends on vocabulary that is very useful for a foreign language (English) learners. Since the function of the teaching English at elementary school, in this case isthe fourth graders, is to introduce English as the first foreign language to the students in order to make them have ability to communicate in simple English, so the teacher should consider to select vocabulary when they are teach teaching, the words should be quantities, needs, and meaningful for the students. Moreover, the teacher should understand the aim of teaching and learning vocabulary. When he presents a new vocabulary he should primarily try to enable students to recognize the words and their meanings perfectly clear.

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  29. F. The Aplication of TPR
    A method or technique in teaching and learning process must be developed in order to get a better purpose for a better life. TPR was developed in order to improve the better result of teaching learning process of a new language. Teachers who use TPR believe in the importance of having the students enjoy their experience in learning to communicate a foreign language.
    According to Larsen-Freeman (2000: 113), TPR was develop in order to reduce the stress people feel when studying foreign languages and thereby encourage students to persist in their study beyond a beginning level of proficiency.
    Richard and Rodgers (1986: 91) say: “The general objectives of Total Physical Response are to teach oral proficiency at a beginning level. Comprehension is a mean to an end, and the ultimate aim is to give basic speaking skills. TPR aims to produce learners who are capable of an uninhibited communication that is intelligible to a native speaker”.
    From the statement above, there are some objectives of Total Physical
    Response:
    1) Teaching oral proficiency at a beginning level.
    2) Using comprehension as a means to speaking
    3) Using action-based drills in the imperative form
    1. The Teacher and Learners Role in TPR
    In the teaching learning process using TPR method, the learners and the
    teacher play different roles.
    1) Learners Role
    Learners in TPR have the primary roles of listeners and performers. They
    listen attentively and respond both individually and collectively. They have little influence over the content of learning since the content is determined by the teacher who must follow the imperative form for lesson (Richard and Rodgers 1986:93).
    According to Larsen and Freeman (2000: 113), the students are imitators of the teacher’s nonverbal model. There will be a role reversal with individual students directing the teacher and the other students.In TPR, learners monitor and evaluate their own progress. They are
    encouraged to speak when they feel ready to speak that is when a sufficient basis in the language has been internalized.
    2) Teacher Role
    In the teaching learning process using TPR method, teacher plays an active and direct role. According to Larsen and Freeman (2000: 113) teacher is the director of all students’ behaviors.
    Asher (1977) as quoted by Richard and Rodgers, (1986: 93) states “The
    instructor is the director of a stage play in which the students are the actors”. It means that teacher is the one who decides what to teach, who models and presents the new material, and who selects supporting materials for classroom use. Teacher is encouraged to be well prepared and well organized so that the lesson flows smoothly and predictable.

    2. The Principles of Total Physical Response
    Before applying the TPR method for teaching a foreign language, in this case is English, a teacher should understand its principles well so he will be able to use it properly in the teaching learning process. Asher as the developer of TPR elaborates the principles of this method, they are:
    1) Second language learning is parallel to first language learning and should
    reflect the same naturalistic process
    2) Listening should develop before speaking
    3) Children respond physically to spoken language, and adult learners learn
    better if they do that too
    4) Once listening comprehension has been develop, speech develops
    naturally and effortlessly out of it
    5) Delaying speech reduces stress. (www.tprsource.com/asher.htm)

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  30. C. Conclussion
    After explain the several definition and and applications of TPR teaching, the author concluse that As a teaching methode, total phsycal response is gaining more and more importance in the ESL classrooms. As it is the case, many things are connected with each other, so the successful use ofeomniunicative teaching methode depends on the confidence and motivation of the students, depends on the teaching atmosphere of the classrooms, depends on the authenticity of the materials and even the cultural or educational background of the students.








    BIBLYOGRAPHI
    Richards, J. C. and Rodgers, T. S.. Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching: A Description and Analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1986.

    Johnson, T. R. and Smith, J. W.. A Framework for Opportunistic Abductive Strategies. In Proceedings of the Thirteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. 1991: 760-764.

    Krashen, Stephen D. and Terrell, Tracy D.. The Natural Approach: Language Acquisition in the Classroom. Hayward, CA:Alemany Press. 1983.





















    BIBLYOGRAPHI
    Richards, J. C. and Rodgers, T. S.. Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching: A Description and Analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1986.

    Johnson, T. R. and Smith, J. W.. A Framework for Opportunistic Abductive Strategies. In Proceedings of the Thirteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. 1991: 760-764.

    Krashen, Stephen D. and Terrell, Tracy D.. The Natural Approach: Language Acquisition in the Classroom. Hayward, CA:Alemany Press. 1983.

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  31. Moreover, Larsen and Freeman (2000: 111) describe several principles in
    teaching learning process by using TPR upon which the teacher’s behaviors is based. The principles of TPR are as follow:
    1) Meaning in the target language can often be conveyed through action. Memory
    is activated through learners’ response. The target language should not be
    presented in chunks; not just word by word.
    2) The students’ understanding of the target language should be developed before
    speaking.
    3) Students can initially learn one part of the language rapidly by moving their
    bodies.
    4) The imperative is powerful linguistic device through which the teacher can
    direct student behavior.
    5) Students can learn through observing actions as well as by performing the action
    themselves.
    6) Feeling of success and low anxiety facilitate learning.
    7) Students should not be made to memorize fixed routines.
    8) Correction should be carried out in an unobtrusive manner.
    9) Students must not develop flexibility in understanding a novel combination of
    target language chunks. They need to understand more than the exact sentences
    used in training.
    10) Language learning is more effective when it is fun.
    11) Spoken language should be emphasized over written language.
    12) Students will begin to speak when they are ready.
    13) Students are expected to make errors when they first begin speaking. Work on
    the fine details of the language should be postponed until students have become
    somewhat proficient.
    According to the principles above, it can be concluded that students will understand the meaning of the vocabulary items easily if they use their bodies while
    they are learning. In the learning, students should feel successful and they do not feel pessimistic.
    A teacher should be careful in correcting the students’ mistakes. Correcting
    the mistakes improperly will make the students fell desperate. Therefore, an English
    teacher must be able to create flexibility in the class room. Another important thing is that the new vocabulary should be presented in a context not word by word.

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  32. TEACHING WRITING DESCRIPTION
    THROUGH PICTURE
    By:

    UMI KALSUM. A
    206 323 3738

    ENGLISH EDUCATION STUDY PROGRAM
    TARBIYAH DEPARTMENT
    SEKOLAH TINGGI AGAMA ISLAM NEGERI
    (STAIN) BENGKULU
    2010


    CONTENT

    CONTENT 1
    ACKNOWLEDGMENT 2
    INTRODUCTION 3
    DISCUSSION 5
    A. Concept of Teaching Writing Description 5
    B. Concept of Using Picture 7
    C. How to Teach Writing Description Through Picture 9
    CONCLUSION 10
    REFERNECES 11









    ACKNOWLEDGMENT


    First of all, the writer would like to say Alhamdullilahirabbil’alamin to Allah SWT who helps me in writing this paper, that the title is “ Teaching Writing Description Through picture “
    The writer realizes that there are many problems which got in writing it. Alhamdullilah, all of the problems can be overcome by me since there are some people who helped me in finishing it. Because of that, the writer wants to express my deepest gratitude to all the people who helped me in finishing this paper.
    The writer hopes that this paper will be useful for all of lecturers and students of Stain Bengkulu generally, and to lecturers and students of English Program Study especially. The writer also realizes that this paper still not perfect yet. Because of that, the writer expects critics, correction, and advise from the reader to make it more perfect.

    Bengkulu, March 17th 2010





    The Author




    INTRODUCTION


    The God created human as individual things, so did social things. As individual things, human life to fight their individual rights. In other hand as social things, they can not life without another human. They need another in all aspect of life. Because of human include as social things, so they need a tool to interact with another, to communicate, to share their feels, to share information, and etc. The tool is language. Language is a set of rules used by human as a tool of their communication, (Siahaan, 2007 : 1). Human used language to communicate with other, because of that language is very important for human communication.
    Human life in all part of the world. They live in their own countries. Every country has different culture, rules, belief, and of course different language. They communicate well with their friends from same country, but how about another human from another country ? The big question occur in our mind. The answer is international languages. The languages that unite all of us from every country in the world. One of international languages is English. Because of that English is studied by every country, in formal or informal education.
    In our country, Indonesia, English is studied in school, even English become one of most important subject. Proved English subject become one of subject that examined in UN (Ujian Nasional) accompanied with Indonesian Language and Mathematics.
    In English subject, not only study about how to speak English or speaking, but also other skills in English, listening, reading, and writing.
    Writing is a communicative process. It is an important part of four skills in English language which should be emphasized on teaching learning process in the classroom. Generally, students find many difficulties to express their ideas in writing. Students often complain that they have limited of vocabularies, misspelling, and so on. Teacher should solve the problems with various of technique.
    Using picture in teaching writing makes students easier in getting ideas. The pictures can create students imagination and give opportunity to students to axpress their own ideas freely. In this paper focus on how to teach writing with picture ? Why it is important ? And how to apply it at teaching in the classroom.

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  33. DISCUSSION

    A.Concept of Teaching Writing Description
    The language skill is performance of the speakers of a language in using their language as a tool of the communication in their daily routines. It is the ability to use their language according to the set of the conventional rules they share among themselves. It refers to the correct use of the rules of their language. people having a good language skill are those who can apply the rules of their language in transferring information in their communication effectively.
    According to Siahaan ( 2007 : 2 ) the written productive language skill is call writing. So writing is a skill that required someone to produce his ideas in written material. It is the skill of writer to communicate information to reader. His skill is also realized by his ability to apply the rule of language. he is writing to transfer information from his mind to the reader effectively. His ability includes all the correct grammatical and vocabulary element of the language.
    As with the other skill, writing can not be separate from vocabulary and grammar. In teaching writing, automatically we have to deal with words and expressions vocabulary, and the rules that govern the syntax of its pattern, grammar. (Setiyadi. et al, 2008 : 7.3). Because of teaching writing is more focus on grammar and vocabulary, so we have to choose Grammar Translation Method as the method of this process. According to Steinberg (1993 : 222 ) Grammar Translation Method is characterized by its emphasis on reading and writing. Knowledge of grammar and vocabulary of the target language is tough through explication and translation using the native language. There is little emphasis on oral skill. If we think thing that Grammar Translation Method is more focus on Grammar and vocabulary, of course we judge that this method makes students born. Richards and Rodgers ( 1986 : 3 ) said that although the Grammar Translation Method often creates frustration for students and makes few demands on teachers, it is still used in situation where understanding literary texts is the primary focus on foreign language study and there is little need for a speaking knowledge of the language.
    There are many kind of writing, such as narration, description and atc. Description is one of kind of writing. It refer to how to describe something via written material. In lexical term description is giving a statement of what is like. (Oxford, 2007 : 116). In other hand according to Dacker in Inayah (2009 : 12) description is a painting a word picture of some thing concrete, such as a scene or a person. In addition other expert Newman in Inayah (2009 : 13 ) said that description is word painting.
    The ultimate aim of teaching writing description is to give students opportunity to express their own ideas freely. Teacher helps students writing by providing leading question in order to begin to use English. Teacher also gives motivations to put their ideas without reluctant to write.

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  34. B.Concept of Using Picture

    As foreign language in Indonesia, that isn’t used in daily activity in the human life, English is though difficult to learned. To decrease the difficulties, so it is important to consider techniques and strategies that can be used to make it easier. According to Kasbalah in Zasrianita (2009 : 123) to get the attention of the students, have to created a situation that can make students are motivated to learn.
    Media is one thing that is offered by many experts as a tool to increase
    the interest and motivations of the study. That’s why, the ability to use teaching media is one of competences that every teacher must have. Picture is one of good media in teaching. Wright in Sagita ( 2009 : 4) state that picture is of one media which is suggested for helping the success of teaching-learning. It means that pictures can help in every teaching-learning process, include teaching writing.
    Hornby (1995 : 871) says picture may be draw, painted, or photographically, if a picture is desirable for classroom use and it is in a book or pamphlet which is available to an entire class, it provably would be most efficient to ask everyone to turn the same page at the same time to look at the picture.
    Beside of pictures is a tool to increase the interest and motivation of the study, so is media of communication. According to Rivai and Sudjana in Sagita ( 2009 : 8 ) A picture is an illustration of picture that can be used as two dimensional. Representation of person, place or thing. It means that picture is one of the media of communication that can show people, place and thing that are far from us.
    Teaching writing description by using picture helps students to remain real life situation. It gives to provide the stimulus for the writing. Teaching writing by using picture is interesting to develop writing activities and it is also to motivate students’ writing.
    Pictures are very important to use in teaching writing to develop writing style and it also can motivate students to be creative. Pictures could create the imagination and makes clear what they are going to write or retell the stories or example teacher ask to the students to describe a supermarket by showing picture of supermarket. So students try to get the remarkable ideas of supermarket and make students easier to do the writing activities. According to Zasrianita (2009 : 124) the advantages of using media in teaching English are :
    1.Help the students to make language easier and perfect it.
    2.Motivate the students.
    3.Make a same perception, in addition the new concept has more than one mean.
    4.Increase the quality of English learning.
    5.Make the learning process more interesting and more interactive.

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  35. CONCLUSION


    Writing is a communicative process. It is an important part of four skills in English language which should be emphasized on teaching learning process in the classroom. Generally, students find many difficulties to express their ideas in writing. Teacher should solve the problems with various of technique.
    Pictures are very important to use in teaching writing to develop writing style and it also can motivate students to be creative. Pictures could create the imagination and makes clear what they are going to write or retell the stories or example teacher ask to the students to describe a supermarket by showing picture of supermarket. So students try to get the remarkable ideas of supermarket and make students easier to do the writing activities. So teaching writing description through picture is one of very good technique teaching.
    The writer suggest to all of the teacher, to use medias in teaching learning process, because media has a great part in success of teaching and learning.








    REFERENCE

    Hornby. 1995. Oxford Learner’s Pocket Dictionary. New York: Cambridge University Press.
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/media.
    Inayah, mutiara. 2007. Improving Students’ Writing Description Ability by Using Picture. Bengkulu : Skripsi
    Sagita, diana intan. 2009. Effect of teaching writing narration using series Pictures in the second grade of muhammadiyah 10 Junior high school at Surakarta. Surakarta : Skripsi.
    Setiyadi, A.g.bambang, et al. 2007. Tefl 2. Jakarta : Universitas Terbuka Press
    Siahaan, sanggam. 2008. The English Paragraph. Yogyakarta : Graha Ilmu.
    Steinberg, danny. D. 1993. An Introduction to Psycholinguistics. London : Addison Wesley Longman Inc.
    Richards, C. jack and Rodgers, Theodore S. 1986. Approach And Method in Language Teaching. New York : Cambridge University Press.
    Zasrianita, fera. 2009. English For Children. Unpublish complilation.
    -----------------. 2007. Oxford Learner’s Pocket Dctionary. New York : Oxford University Press.

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  36. C.How To Teach Writing Description Through Picture.
    According to Walter and Julie in Inayah (2009 : 13) bellow is three step in writing :
    1.Pre writing : in this phases teacher should be make the students interest and motivate them to write by using media, in this case specially to using picture as media.
    2.Writing phases : after the interest, enjoy and understand the picture given, student start to write.
    3.Post writing : in this phases student asked to read their composition in order to be understand and meaningful for the reader.
    All phases have to be conducted actively by teacher who teach writing skill to the student.
    Bellow is the steps of teaching writing description through picture :

    1.Discuss with the students about what object that will be wrote by the students
    2.Explain to the students in few minutes about writing description.
    3.Explain about the title of paragraph that will be done by students.
    4.Give an example.
    5.Give opportunity to ask.
    6.Give a material of the picture, example a room.
    7.Ask to the students do a short paragraph in writing descriptive based on the picture as material.

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  37. SOME TECHNIQUES IN TEACHING PRONUNCIATION

    By:

    NINI AGUSTINA
    206 323 3726

    ENGLISH EDUCATION STUDY PROGRAM
    TARBIYAH DEPARTMENT
    SEKOLAH TINGGI AGAMA ISLAM NEGERI
    (STAIN) BENGKULU
    2009


    INTRODUCTION


    The teaching of pronunciation has always been dealt with from rather different perspective from other language skills. The influence of the first language seems to be much greater in relation to pronunciation in contrast with the acquisition of morphology and syntax. In addition, gifted learners who attain native speaker mastery of other aspects of their second language rarely master the phonological system as effectively if they begin learning the language after puberty.
    At the level of classroom action, efforts to teach pronunciation have sometimes resulted in practices which range from the middly eccentric to the bizarre, including rhythmic chants and dances designed to get learners to integrate their bodily movements and gestures with their attempts at articulating the new language. The popularity of such practices has persisted the fact that there is little empirical evidence that they are significantly more effective than more traditional exercises.
    In this paper we look at some of the theoretical positions which have been taken in the teaching of pronunciation. Recent research into the acquisition of L2 pronunciation which provides insights into ways of teaching pronunciation effectively is also reviewed.
    The second part of the paper are good example of drilling techniques that have been modified to bring context, interest and medium of authenticity to what would otherwise be a very mechanical task.
    In this paper sets out to answer the following questions :
    1. What the teachers do to help the students to improve the quality of their pronunciation ?
    2. what teaching technique are used in teaching pronunciation ?
    3. how to apply the teaching technique in the classroom ?

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  38. DISCUSSION


    In one of few survey article to have been published in pronunciation, Pannington and Richards in Nunan (1995: 106) evaluated the current status of research into the teaching of pronunciation from the perspective of communicative language teaching. They suggest the accuracy at the segmental level is no longer basic aim of pronunciation teaching and that teaching isolated form of sound and word fails to address the fact that in communication, many aspect in pronunciation are determined by the position of element within long stretches of speech. Their article contains the following recommendation for teaching pronunciation :
    a. The teaching pronunciation must focus on longer – term goals ; short – term objectives must be developed with reference to long – term goals.
    b. The goals of any explicit training in pronunciation should to bring learner gradually from controlled, cognitively based performance to automatic skill - based performance.
    c. Teaching should aim toward gradually reducing the amount of native language influence on segmental, voice setting, and the prosodic feature but should not necessarily seek to eradicate totally the influence of the native language on the speaker’s pronunciation in the second language.
    d. Pronunciation should be taught as an integral part of oral language use, as part of the means for creating both referential and interactional meaning, not merely as an aspect of oral production or words and sentences.
    e. Pronunciation forms a natural link to other aspect of language use, such as listening, vocabulary, and grammar : ways of highlighting this independence in teaching need to be explore.
    (Pannington and Richards in Nunan (1995: 106))
    The research and theory presented so far suggest that the learner’s first language will have strong influence on L2 pronunciation, but there are many also be developmental sequence kind to those for morphosyntax which may be impervious to instruction. Kenworthy’s theory and research by identifying tree ways in which the teacher can influence learners, the first of these is to persuade learners that good pronunciation can greatly facilitate comprehension. Secondly, the teacher should stress that intelligibility and communicative effectiveness, not native speaking mastery, will be the goals. Lastly, the teacher can demonstrate on going concern for the learners’ progress in developing intelligible and acceptable pronunciation.
    In this case Broughton et.al. in Richard (1986) suggest that “a teacher should understand the way the English sound are systematically used within the sound structure in English, not to explain to the students, but rather so that he can clarify his own objectives in teaching pronunciation.” This is easy to understand a teacher himself should know well when to use English sounds, so he will make his students use them in the right way.

    BalasHapus
  39. Broughton et.al. in Richard (1986) also mention that there are seven principles that the teacher should follow in giving pronunciation practice.
    1. Recognition practice should precede pronunciation practice.
    2. But since production reinforces recognition, there is no need to wait for perfect recognition before asking for production.
    3. Sound to hear spoken should be clearly highlighted in short utterance.
    4. Bur this sound not be taken to the extreme of tongue twister like Peter Piper.
    5. Students should be given opportunity to hear the some thing said by more then one voice in the mode.
    6. The English sound can be demonstrate in contras in other English sound or else in contras with sound from the native language.
    7. The target sound contrasted should be shown to function meaningfully, i.e. students should realize that it make an important difference to the intelligibility to use it properly. This can be done by the procedure involving the progression from straight forward drill, where the success or failure is simply measured by teacher’s approval or disapproval, to a stimulated communication situation like the understanding of a story or joke where the meaning might depend on the sound contras being taught.

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  40. Three techniques for teaching different aspects of English pronunciation by Kenworthy in Brown (2001: 286-288)
    a. Intonation – listening for Pitch change
    Record the following conversation and play it to the students. Establish the participants. The setting and the even by asking the students to guess who and what they are
    He : Ready?
    She : No.
    He : Why?
    She : Problems.
    He : Problems?
    She : Yes.
    He : What?
    She : Babysitter.
    After the students have figured out what is going on, you can play the conversation again. This time put the transcription of the conversation on the board or on a overhead projector and ask the students to try determine for each utterance weather the speaker voice ends with a rising or falling pitch. Draw arrow next to each utterance and play the conversation one more. To isolate pitch from words, you can use a kazzo, which can be purchased at a toy store (see Gilberd 1987). By humming into it. You can demonstrate rising and falling pitch to the amusement and allumination of your students.
    Ask the students to explain what each utterance means. Then the point out the change in pitch can indicate a change in meaning. (e.g. “Ready?” with a rising pitch, “Are you ready?” but “ready.” With falling pitch means “I am ready.”). Additional practice dialogues are provided here. Make up of your particular students. Follow the procedure described for the first conversation.
    Conversation B Conversation C Conversation D
    A : Single? A : Good? A : Locked?
    B : Double. B : Delicious. B : Locked.
    A : Double? A : More? A : Key?
    B : Yes. B : Please. B : Key?
    A : Cone? A : Key.
    B : Cup. B : Oh-oh.

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  41. b. Stress – Contrasting Nouns
    38 I Want a blue one !
    LEVEL : Elementary to Intermediate
    TIME : 10 – 15 minutes
    AIM : To give students stress practice in the context of a drill.
    PREPARATION :
    Prepare twenty – seven little card with a picture on each, to cover all the possible permutations of the following colors, fabrics, and items of clothing. The items can be increased and/or varied if required :

    Red woolen dress
    Blue cotton shirt
    Black nylon sweater
    The card should look like this :






    PROCEDURE :
    1. Set up a clothing store situation. Show the students the card to nidicate what they can buy and write a substitution table on the board like this :
    I’d like a, red woolen dress Please,
    Blue cotton sweater,
    Black nylon shirt,


    2. Take the role of the sales clerk, and ask the students to make turns to ask for something in the shop. Whenever a student asks for something, you should hand over the picture making an error and either the color, the fabric, or the item of the clothing. The student the has to correct the error using appropriate stress and intonation. The diaoloque should go like this :

    Student : I’d like a red cotton dress, please.
    Teacher : Here you are.
    Student : No, I asked for a red cotton dress, not a blue one.
    Or
    Student : I’d like a black woolen shirt, please.
    Teacher : Here you are
    Student : No, I said a black woolen shirt, not a black woolen skrit.
    REMARKS :
    3. When they have gotthe hang of the exercise, divide the cards out among pairs of student so that can practice on their own.
    This activity could be used with other objects adjectives.

    BalasHapus
  42. CONCLUSION


    Pronunciation is a neglected skill in many classrooms, despite the obvious importance attached to it by learners. In this paper we have seen that pronunciation work can be integrated in communicative language work, and that, while it requires repetitive language work, this need not be boring. The classroom extracts illustrated two quite different ways in which pronunciation work can be carried out within a communicative context, the first involving collaborative problem-solving, and the second language awareness.
    The major theoretical shift which has occurred within the development of communicative approaches to language teaching has been from segmental work to a focus on supra-segmental features of rhythm, stress and intonation. In terms of teaching goals, the shift has been to focus on the developments of communicative effectiveness and intelligibility, rather than on the development of native-like pronunciation.
    Three techniques for teaching pronunciation
    2. Intonation – listening for pitch changes
    3. Stress – contrasting nouns
    4. Meaningful minimal pairs














    REFERENCES

    Brown, H. Doughlas. 2000. Teaching by Principle : An Interactive Approach to Language. San Fransisco : Addison Wesley Longman Inc
    Hubbard, Peter Dkk. 2000. A Training Course For Tefl. New York : Oxford University Press
    Laroy, Clement. 1995. Pronunciation : Resource Books for Teacher. New York : Oxford University Press
    Nunan, David. 1995. Language Teaching Methodology; A Textbook for Teacher. New York : Phoneix Elt
    Richard, Jack C & Rodgers, Thedore S. 1986. Approach and Method in Language teaching : A description and Analysis. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press.

    BalasHapus
  43. c. Meaningful Minimal Pairs
    Traditional minimal – pairs drills, used for decades in language teaching, go something like this :
    T : Okay, class, on the board, picture number 1 is a “pen”, and the picture number 2 is “pin”. Listen : pen [point to number 1], pin [point to number 2] [several repetation]. Now, I am going to say either number 1 or number 2. you tell me which. Ready ? [pause] pin.
    Ss : Number 2
    T : Good. Ready. Pin
    Ss : Number 2
    T : Okay. [pause] pen
    Ss : Number 1

    CLT principles prod us to be a little more meaningful. In the following example [see Laroy Clements 1995, Hubbard. Peter 2000] you can see that a little contextualization goes a long way
    1. T : This pen leaks.
    S : Then don’t write whith it.
    T : This pen leaks.
    S : Then don’t cook with it
    2. T : Where can I buy cold cream ?
    S : At the diary
    T : Where can I buy cold cream ?
    S : At the drugstore
    3. T : The sun is hot on my head
    S : Then get a cap
    T : Oh, no, I missed the bus. I am going to be late
    S : Then get a cab.

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  44. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
    In the name of ALLAH S.W.T. the most gracious and the most merciful.
    First of all, the wraiter praise to ALLAH S.w.T. who has rendered on the writer for blessing , strength, and opportunity in completing this paper title Improving student’s speaking by using the chain story.Then, Shalawat and Salam are sent to the prophet Muhammad.who has lightened all human being through islam.
    Finally, the researcher realizes that the content of this research is far from being perfect, so constructive suggestion and criticism is appreciated.

    Benkulu, 27, maret 2010

    Nurhasana

    BalasHapus
  45. Improving student’s speaking by using the chain story





    PAPER
    By.
    NURHASANA
    206 323 3724





    ENGLISH EDUCATION STUDY PROGRAM
    TARBIYAH DEPERTEMENT
    SEKOLAH TINGGI AGAMA ISLAM NEGERI
    (STAIN) BENGKULU
    2010

    BalasHapus
  46. CHAPTER I
    INTRODUCTION
    A. Background
    Language is a system of arbitrary vocal symbol used for human communication.language is very important in live human.language became one of ackivities life.language many used country in indonesia and out country.one of strange language familiar is language English to because that language English to teach in indonesia.language English constitute one of skill language English to teach is speaking speaking is to for communication using articulation sounds. in Indonesia many to teach language English especially to junior high school. In the school, student never speak with friend inlanguage english as said greeting in English, for example “good morning” or “good day” and they had never using language English when they wanted to ask something in the classroom, whereas to teach language English order easy student in speaking. they had no courage to talk in English.most of them felt ashamed or afraid of making mistakes while speaking. Actually there were many factors that cause this problem,the first,English was the new subject for student, students have never took English courses before.the second,they not many have vocabulary in English.the third, the influence of their mother tongue or their dialect.
    Based on that situation, in this paper,there are techniques to the students direct practice in skill speaking.there are some techniques that have been use in order to motivate the students to say, so try find another technique in order to help them to be brave in expressing their ideas in English.that is way the writer is very interested in ‘’Improving student’s speaking by using the chain story”.In more Harmer suggests that there are basically three aspects of planning :
    1. What is chain story ?
    2. How to application chain story ?
    3. Why it is important ?

    BalasHapus
  47. THE CONTENT


    ACKNOWLEDGE
    CONTENT
    CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION ………………………………………………… 1
    CHAPTER II INTRODUCTION……………………………………………….. 3
    2.1 Concept Of Teaching Speaking...………………………………………… 3 2.2 Concept Chain Story Technique …………………………………………. 4
    2.3 Concept Application Chain Story ………………………………………... 5
    CHAPTER III CONCLUSION ....………………………………………………. 6
    DIBIOGRAFY

    BalasHapus
  48. CHAPTER II
    DISCUSSION

    2.1. CONCEPT OF TEACHING SPEAKING
    Speaking ability is the ability of producing the articulation sounds or the ability of using the words to express the idea, the opinion and sense. ( Arsjad in Fatima, 2001 : 4 ).According to Tarigan H.G (1990 : 15) speaking is the productive skill in the oral mode.there are three kinds of speaking situation in which we find our selves :
    - interactive
    - partially interactive
    - non- interactive.
    interactive speaking situation include to – face conversations and telephone calls, in which we are alternately listening and speaking, and in which we have a chance to ask for clarification, repetition, or slower speech from our conversation partner. Some speaking are partially interactive, such as when giving a speech to a live audience, where the convention is that the audience does not interrupt the speech.the speaker nevertheless can see the audience and judge from the expressions on their faces and body language whether or not her or she is being understood.
    Some few speaking situations many to totally non- interactive, such as when recording a speech for a radio broadcast.here are some of the micro- skills involved in speaking. According to Setiyadi P.H.D.( 2008: 614) there are many techniques to create meaningful context for speaking practice in English. in language learning, students should be trained to speak.as a preparation for conversation activities, tearner need practice in saying and making phrases and sentences.the activity gives opportunity for the students to communicate. When they do this activity, it is not rare that they make some mistakes in communication, but their mistakes should not be alarmed. The important thing of communication practice exercise is that the student get the competence and trust to them selves to use the language freely. If the teacher wants to correct their mistakes, it should be done wisely, because the important thing in spoken language is meaning and communication. According to Firocehiare in Fatima ( 2001 : 5) communication through the use of the spoken language means understanding and reacting to what someone says.According to Jones ( 1986: 10). there are kinds of speaking.
    - good speech
    - bad speech .
    Good speech is clearly in telligible to all ordinary people, while bad speech is a way of talking which is difficult for most people to understand.

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  49. 2.2. Concept Of Chain Story Technique
    Chain Story is written collectively by a group of authors. According to Firocehiare in Fatima ( 2001 : 5) Chain is type of pupil activity in classroom in which a student makes statement ask a question, respons the students next to him or behind him makes a statement, response or asks a question.
    - Chain story technique is one way to make the students interested in studying speaking.
    here, student are given the opportunity to tell the story to their friends, this technique gives the learners a chance to speak using mainly their own words without having worry about say.
    ‘’ the chain story technique lets the learners think about how to say something without having worry to much to say.in this case, the learners have freedom to speak up by using their own since it can be understood by others, because the aim of speaking is for communication. According to Subyato in Fatima (2001: 17). The first goal of communication ability is to send the message to other people, it means ability to communicate about something in language. the second goal is to send the message to other people that socially it can be received.
    - Using chain story technique, students are trained to express their idea by using their own words without having worry in making mistakes.
    This is the technique of chain story:
    Five learner are sent out of the classroom.while the five learners. While the lear way other learners in the classroom read a story about one hundred words long.the short story is put away and then one of them/ the five learners is brought back intop the room.one of the learners who stayed in the room use his memory to describe or to tell the story to friend.

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  50. 2.3. CONCEPT APPLICATION CHAIN STORY
    2.3.1. Teacher activities :
    - preparing the material hand out.
    - Distributing the materials.
    - Giving instruction clearly
    - Monitoring the activity .
    - Evaluating the activity

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  51. 2.3.2 Students activities :
    - the teacher explain to student about chain story for exsample legenda Timun Emas.
    - the teacher gives the short story that more that interesting than the first story.
    - the teacher requst one student became delegation to story in the class about a chain story fixed and teacher give five minutes to story with friends.
    - the students are devided into group of five.
    - the teacher give task to student to know the store character and to make conculution about story.
    - the teacher shool grades each group they are doing the activity in the class.

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  52. DIBIOGRAFY
    Fatimah, siti.2001. Improving student’s speaking by using the chain story.Unpublished Thesis- FKIP UNIB.
    Jones, Daniel. 1986. The Pronounciation of English. New York : University Press Cambridge
    Wardhaugh, Ronald.1977. Introduction to Linguistics.New York: Includes Index
    Setiyadi, Bambang. Ph. D. 2008. Tefl. Jakarta : Universitas Terbuka
    http://www.thefreedictionary.com/story

    BalasHapus
  53. CHAPTER III
    CONCLUSION

    In this paper the writer will conclusion.speking is to for communication using articulation sounds or the ability of using the words to express the idea by students. in Indonesia many to teach language English especially to junior high school. In the school, student never speak with friend in language english as said greeting in English, for example “good morning” or “good day” and they had never using language English when they wanted to ask something in the classroom, whereas to teach language English order easy student in speaking
    In this paper,there are techniques to the students direct practice in skill speaking.so there are some techniques that have been use in order to motivate the students to say, so try find another technique in order to help them to be brave in expressing their ideas in language English.this with writer understed there are technique speaking by using chain story.

    BalasHapus
  54. TEACHING SPEAKING BY USING
    NOTE CARD















    Paper
    By
    Nurlela
    206 323 3725



    ENGLISH EDUCATION STUDY PROGRAM
    TARBIYAH DEPARTMENT
    SEKOLAH TINGGI AGAMA ISLAM NEGERI
    (STAIN) BENGKULU
    2010

    BalasHapus
  55. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT


    In the name of Allah Swt. The gracious and most mercifull. First of all, the writer praise to Allah S.W.T. who has redered on the writer for blessing, strength, and opportunity in completing the paper entitled “Teaching Speaking By Using Note Card”
    Then, salawat and salam are sent to our prophet Muhammad S.A.W. who has lightened all human being through Islam.
    Finally, this paper is still far from being perfect. Therefore, constractive suggestion to improve this paper are always welcome.

    Bengkulu, March 2010


    Nurlela

    BalasHapus
  56. CONTENT

    ACKNOWLEDGMENT 1
    CONTENT 2
    INTRODUCTION 3
    DISCUSSION 5
    A. Definition of Speaking 5
    B. Technique of Teaching Speaking 5
    C. Learning Procedures 10
    CONCLUSION 11
    REFERENCES

    BalasHapus
  57. INTRODUCTION

    As we know that English an international language. English is an important role in all aspect of life. For example, in our education, there are many books which are written in English. Not only English department, but also in all department. Because that language has an important role to transferring science and technology, for example in business partners. In this part, speaking skill in English language is needed to communicate with foreigner.
    Furthermore, kind of communication speaking or oral communication is very effective method in making a good communication. Because, in speaking is also a good way to share information and main ideas. Because we can do communicate in intimate situation. Beside that, speaking is one of the most important part of skill in English language. of all the four skill ( listening, speaking, reading, and writing ). Speaking seems intuitively the most important. Considering that speaking is the most important, it should be emphasized directly and practically in the classroom, because it is not same as other skill. Such as listening, reading and writing. Speaking need more practices, especially in learning speaking of foreign language.
    There are many ways or techniques in teaching speaking skill, such as teaching speaking by using game, discussion, dialoque, picture, note card and other. In this study the writer used note card technique in teaching speaking. Note card is a technique that rarely used in teaching speaking. In other hand, study speaking with note card technique is an interesting way to increase students motivation in study English.
    In this paper the writer would like to discussion about :
    - What is the speaking ?
    - What is note card ?
    - Why is it good to note card in teaching ?
    - How to procedures in teaching ?

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  58. DISCUSSION

    A. Definition of Speaking
    Generally, speaking can be defined as the process of communication through oral language. According to Akhadia, et al ( 1993 : 8 ) speaking is activity of delivering the massages to the massages’ receiver in order to understand and receive those massages. The massages could be contain some aspects, such as thoughts, ideas, feeling, and emotion.
    Speaking that is also called by oral communication or words to express the mind, idea, and feeling. Tarigan. H. G. ( 1981 : 15 ). Speaking is also way of learning about the words and this idea is described in relation to the major language function catagories.
    The opinions above show that speaking could be means as the skill or capability of someone using his speaking instruments to deliver the massage. Idea to the others as the object of communication. Beside that, speaking can also be meant as the using of oral instrument in a language to deliver or express person’s mind, feeling, ideas, emotion and so on.
    B. Technique of Teaching Speaking
    The techniques in teaching speaking is important. Because by the technique that will be used, we can conclude wheter the technique is effective or not. The following are some explanations of techniques in teaching speaking.

    1. Dialoque
    Dialoque is a traditional language learning that has gone come what out a fashion in recent year. Ur ( 1996 : 131 ). Furthermore us explained that learner can perform the dialogue privately or in pairs, or publicly in front of the whole class. Learners can be asked to perform the dialoque in different ways. In different moods (bad, happy, irritated, bored, for example), different role relationships (a parent an child, wife and husband, wheelchair patient and nurse, etc).
    2. Group work discussion
    Group work discussion is the technique which the student devided into group to talk over about something, give its explanations, and look for its solution.
    As noticed previously that speaking is very important in language teaching, some experts suggest several techniques that may be applied in English teaching such as by using dialogue, picture, game, note card, etc.
    Dealing with this study, the writer will then break the technique in to the technique by using note card.
    Using Note Card
    1. Definition
    Spears (1985 : 40) note card is a square or rectangle of stiff paper sort notes are written. another opinion, note card is the material that can be seen like photographs, posters, and diagram. Note card is useful to take note on index cards because it gives you the flexibility to change the order of your notes and group them together easily.
    2. Technique
    Matching Pair Activities
    The activities in this section involve matching pairs of word in one way or another. All these activities are done in pairs in small groups. The items to be copied and cut up are arranged an two page – A and B. this makes it easy for the teacher to see to correct solution. If coloured card or paper is available then different colours could be used for the A and B pages.

    BalasHapus
  59. VERB + NOUN COLLOCATIONS (A Cards) VERB + NOUN COLLOCATIONS (B Cards)

    answer ask
    blow brush
    build climb
    cook catch
    draw drink
    drive eat
    fasten play
    read ride
    sing smoke
    switch on write
    the phone a question
    your nose your teeth
    a house a mountain
    a meal a cold
    a picture a cup of tea
    a car a biscuit
    a seatbelt the guitar
    a magazine a horse
    a song a cigar
    the television a postcard

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  60. DEFINITIONS (A Cards) DEFINITIONS (B Cards)

    annual blunt
    courteous damp
    deliberate drowsy
    durable fragile
    fragrant furious
    huge illegible
    illiterate invisible
    peckish placid
    reluctant rude
    snug urgent
    happening once a year not sharp
    (e.g. a knife)
    polite, well mannered rather wet
    Something that is done on purpose. sleepy
    strong and long - lasting delicate; easily damaged
    sweet - smelling very angry; raging
    extremely large difficult or impossible to read
    unable to read or write that cannot be seen
    slightly hungry calm; not easily upset
    unwilling, hesitant bad-mannered, impolite
    warm and cosy So important that it needs to be dealt with at once.

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  61. Beside that, there are many techniques that also can be applied directly by the students in the classroom such as.
    - Role play
    Role play technique is the technique which the student learner act out an imaginary situation. The learners either use a dialogue or the teacher gives them, in rictions about way to say.
    - Remembering
    Remembering technique is the technique which the students learners close their e yes and try to remember for example, item from a picture or the location of objects in the class room.
    - Miming
    Miming technique is the technique which a learner mimes, for example, a feeling or action in which the others have identify.
    C. Learning Procedures
    Learning procedures of teaching speaking by using note card are :
    1. Preparing for note card.
    2. Teacher asked the students to memorize the vocabularies related to the note card.
    3. Teacher asked the students to explain about the note card orally to practice their speaking ability.
    4. Teacher asked the students to matching pair activities of word in small group one way.
    5. Teacher monitored and evaluated students’ activities.

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  62. REFERENCES

    Akhadia, sabarti. et al. 1993. Bahasa Indonesia 1. Depdikbud.
    Spears, Richard A and Schinke, Linda liona. 1985. Everyday American Dictionary. U.S.A. : National Text Book Company.
    Tarigan, H. G. 1981. Berbicara Sebagai Suatu Keterampilan Berbahasa. Bandung : Angkasa.
    Ur, penny. 1996. A Course in Language Teaching and Theory. London : Cambridge University Press.
    Watcyn, peter and Jones. 1993. Vocabulary Games and Activities For Teacher. New York : Penguin Books.

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  63. CONCLUSION

    Note card is this kind of speaking activity teaching and learning process enable and encouraged students to talk about their own experience of using their background knowledge in speaking classroom. In short, introducing note card in speaking class can increase the students’ interest, motivation, and participation in English learning.
    Futhermore, it can also provide the students with a wide range of meaningful activities, so that the goal of learning a foraign language can be attained well
    The writer suggest to all of the teacher in the world to create the good situation in teaching learning process. One of the techniques is using media. Because it can increase the motivation of the students to study.

    BalasHapus
  64. TEACHING READING COMPREHENSION
    BY USING DRAMA TEXT
    By : Neni Nuraini

    A. Introduction

    Language is an important element in one’s life. Without language, someone will get difficulty in communication. Nowadays in globalization era, English is the most important language because almost all the sources of knowledge are written and transferred in English.
    English as a foreign language to be taught to the Indonesia students starting from the fourth year of elementary and senior school, English is compulsory subject. In order to make the students interested in studying English, the students interested in studying English, the teacher should have various strategies in teaching English.
    Reading is one of an important skill in English and has the highest priority in teaching and learning process both at junior high school and senior high school. It is expected, student are able to read technology books and other books in English because reading is one of way to know technology in other country.
    In reading lesson students often find it difficult to comprehend regular textbooks. The difficulty is caused by several factors, such as lengthy text and incomprehensible questions. One way to overcome the difficulty is through the use of drama text; because in drama text could modifying the text length and task difficulty.
    The problem of this study was formulated in the following question. Does the use of drama text improve student’s reading comprehension?
    Based on the problem above, the objectives of the study was to find out the drama text improve the student reading comprehension.
    It was expected that the result of this study would give a way in teaching English in school especially for the contribution to the development of teaching and learning English. It was also expected that researcher and learn more and gain more experience in teaching reading comprehension. In addition, this information can help the student to increase their interest in reading comprehension.

    BalasHapus
  65. B. DISCUSSION
    1. The definition of reading and comprehension
    Reading may defined as an interaction between a writer and reader, since in reading activity a reader, since in reading activity a reader attempts to figure out the information from written text that intended by a writer. As stated by Nuttall (1996: 11) reading is result of interaction between the perception of graphic symbols skills that represents language and reader’s language symbols skills that represent language and reader’s language skill and knowledge of the world.
    In teaching reading through drama text, we can not give an inappropriate drama text to the students because not all the drama text make students understand the material. It depends on the level or grade and the curriculum.
    The teacher should an interesting drama text so that the students can pay attention the material that given to them. More over, the teacher should motivate and facilitated the students in reading activity stimulates the student’s awareness. It causes them to learn to look and listen (Burger, 1966: 5). The drama text can cause the students to learn about the material and the message.
    Many attempts have been made to improve the students reading ability, which shown by the existence of the books on theories of reading as will as book containing reading exercise. However, we can not deny the fact that students still encounter the problems and difficulties when get the meaning from English text.
    Reading, both silently and aloud is a means of communications with others and a way of learning. The student learns to use and understand language through listening and speaking. Then, from his oral knowledge about the words, the students begin to read and interpret the meaning.
    Before giving the text to the student, in order to develop reading comprehension the teacher must determine their own goals.
    The first thing, teacher must do to develop reading comprehension is to determine their own global for the students are to read with enjoyment, read for message, not the code and appreciate what they read.

    2. The Concept Of Drama
    Irma (2000) stated that drama is story or the imitation of human behavior. So drama appears to concrete things and artistically can create back humanity situation. Furthermore Badrun (1993: 6) said that drama is everything can see in the stage that make attention worse and light.
    Beside that Priyeni in her thesis divided drama in four terms. Firstly, drama as etymology; the word “drama” comes from the Greek word “dramoi” that means imitating, and based on this, drama in generally mean action or movement. Secondly, drama as a theater art; in this term drama is a strong or history of human life that is designed to be performed by the actor and actress through action on the stage and be show to the public. Thirdly, drama as a literature art; the drama is a process in from of valuable script and the literature art becomes the most important part and it is usually stated as script oriented.
    Nowadays, there are many types of drama performance such as classical drama, traditional drama, modern drama, game drama, solid drama, comedy drama, etc.
    Another writer Kustaryo in Indarwati (1998: 5) defines that comprehension is understanding what has been read, more over, he describes that comprehension involves understanding vocabulary, seeing the relationship among words and concept, organizing ideas, recognizing the authors purpose, making judgments and evaluating the contents of the article being read.
    The drama text give us more than arousing interest improving students reading comprehension, not only language can be learned from the drama but also culture.
    Father more, the foreign drama text is one of the instruments that can be used in teaching and learning English. Drama is important as a method an learning tool (Priyeni, 2002: 6).

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  66. C. CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION
    Based on the explanation of the papers before, the writer concludes that, the students were more active when they were taught reading comprehension with interesting material such as drama text. That means the use of drama text in teaching reading comprehension have greatly influence the achievement in their English. Besides that, the drama text is one of the instrument that can be used in teaching and learning English. In addition, the use of drama text can improve the student’s reading comprehension and the drama text built up the students motivation and interest in learning English.
    The writer would like to offer some suggestion dealing with teaching reading comprehension based on the conclusion above :
    1. In developing the student’s interest and motivation in learning reading comprehension, the teacher can use the drama text
    2. There is no single technique that is appropriate to all circumstance there fore the teacher should always try to find and create the appropriate technique to be used in class.
    REFERENCES

    Burger, Isabel B. 1996. Creative Play Acting, 2nd ed. New York, Ny: The Ronald Press Company
    Hettich, Paul L. 1992. Learning Skills for College and Career. New York, Ny: Brooks/cole Publishing Company
    Indarwanti. 1998. Students Difficulties and Perception in Reading English Text at The Fourth Semester. English Department of FKIP Universitas Bengkulu
    Nuttal, Cristine. 1996. Teaching Reading Skill in a Foreign Language. (New edition). London: Heinemann Educational Books.
    Priyeni, Yenti. 2002. Improving Student’s Vocabularies Through Drama at “Cahaya Raflesia English Course Bengkulu. (Thesis). Bengkulu : Universitas Bengkulu

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  67. 3. Procedures of The Method
    1. Teacher give a drama text to students
    2. Teacher give assignment to read the text
    3. Teacher explained the text
    4. Teacher give the task
    5. Teacher evaluated the student’s answer

    4. The Advantages of Teaching Reading Comprehension Through Drama Text
    Schools today seem to overemphasize factual recall at the experience of emotional and personality development. Factual (cognitive) information can be combined in a positive way with affective and psychomotor learning through the use of dramatic techniques.
    Using drama text is one alternative way to teach reading comprehension, because reading is an extension of the way you learn the language (Hettich, 1992: 173). In other words, students need to read the text first to extend their knowledge based on the text. The students are asked to read the story in the drama before they answer the question they are supposed to understand what the drama talks about.

    BalasHapus
  68. IMPROVING STUDENT SPEAKING COMPETENCE
    BY USING THE INFORMATION GAP TECHNIQUE






    BY:
    NUNIK HARYANI
    NIM:206 323 3722


    ENGLISH EDUCATION STUDY PROGRAM OF
    TARBIYAH DEPARTEMENT
    SEKOLAH TINGGI AGAMA ISLAM NEGERI (STAIN)
    BENGKULU
    2010
    A. Introduction
    Language is tool of communication. Through language, people can convey their ideas, mind, feeling and emotion, such as like or dislike, to other people. Such language functions are expressed through two means of language, spoken and written forms.
    English is a foreign language for Indonesia people. It is difficult to understand easily because it is strange for their mother tongue. To face this problem the Indonesia government through the National Education Department (Departemen apendidikan Nasional), make a policy to teach this language from the primary school (SD) level, high school level (SMP and SMA or SMK), either public or vocational, and university level. In high school level, English is taught in integrated presentation as a combination of fourth skills.
    The purposes of teaching English in the junior high school level, according to the 1994 curriculum is by the end of the course the students are expected to master the four skills, namely, listening, speaking, reading and writing, through selected themes, on the basis of vocabulary mastery more or less 1000 words, and suitable grammar.
    Mastering English will be easier if student speak English more. In as, people usually use spoken language more than language (Brown and Yule,1995:24). Spoken language is a language used for maintaining social relationships by chatting. Written language by control is a language used for giving information about who is going? Where to do what? And by writing?
    Many student in Indonesia do not like to study English. Sometimes they feel lazy, and bored to attend the English lesson. This condition is happens at all levels including in the junior high school a lot of reasons could be put forward for this problem, namely limited vocabulary worry for mistake, reluctance.
    Although speech ought to be stressed were in our national English curriculum for SLTP in Indonesia, reading id given the first priority in teaching English at all stages. As a proof, in school final examination (UAS=Ujian Akhir Sekolah), there is no test item for speaking. As a result, after learning English for three years, the ability of the vast majority of student in SLTP is still very low, especially in spoken English.
    One important factor here is teaching technique, some experts suggest several techniques that may be applied in English teaching such as by using dialogue, picture, games, role plays, and information gap.
    Teachers competence in presenting English lesson could be affect most student achievement. As such, the researcher tries to present the English material by using information gap in order to make it easier for the student to express ideas or provide reasons.
    The problem in this discussion was: Was there any significant effect of information gap technique on student speaking competence? The objective of this study was to know use of information gap technique could improve student speaking competence. It is expected that this technique could improve student competence in speaking. It was also expected that the result of this study could be useful for English teacher in developing their teaching English.

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  69. B. Discussion
    1. The theory of speaking
    Of all the four skill (listening, speaking, reading, and writing), speaking seems intuitively the most important: people who master a language are referred to as speakers of that language, as if speaking included all other skills, and many if not most, foreign language learners are primarily interested in learning to speak (Peny Ur,1996:120).
    Speaking is the process of expressing message by using English which is performed by the student whether outside the classroom. The students are expected to use the language for real communication. The student success in learning speaking can be measured through the ability of learners to participate in conversation activities, Nunan (1995).
    2. The teaching speaking at SLTP
    The purposes of teaching English in a junior high school, according to the 1994 curriculum, are that by the end of the course the student are expected to master the four skills, namely: speaking, reading, listening and speaking, through the theme that is selected on the basis of vocabulary mastery of more or less than 1000 words and suitable grammar.
    Speaking is an important skill, as it is required for active communication, so it must be emphasized on the teaching and learning process in classroom (RebecaL, 1994:7). Wingate in Sulkan (2000) states that: in teaching speaking the teacher needs to teach in a communicative manner with the conditions that students have mastered atleast a hundred words.
    Based on the explanation above, it is very important for an English teacher in a junior high school to emphasize speaking for their student. He must explain the importance of this skill because this skill is required for daily active communication with other persons everywhere. He must ask their students to continually practice their competence in speaking actively in their daily life. These things should always be emphasizing every time he/she teacher English lesson in the classroom.
    According to Penny Ur (1996:120) the characteristic of a successful speaking activity are : 1)learners talk a lot, 2) participation is even, 3) motivation is high, 4) language is of an acceptable level. Norman, at all, in Sulkan (2000:5) states that the methodology of the communicative ideas stresses, than student participate creatively, produce their own materials, fun and games and acquire language successful.
    However, English is a foreign language for Indonesia people. As such, people have some difficulties in learning English well. According to Penny Ur (1996:121) mentions that the difficulties with speaking activities are: 1) Inhibition 2) nothing to say 3) low or uneven participation and 4) mother tongue use

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  70. 3. The theory of Information Gap
    Although there has been a lot of emphasis on the need to focus on the development of oral skills during language lessons, there is often very little participation by students in such oral activities. Chastain in Subramaniyan A Nambiar (1985) states:
    “Learner are reluctant to participate in oral activities because speaking practice is more difficult than sitting back and listening to the teacher on wondering off into some dream word. Secondly, many feel uncomfortable in their first hesitant attempts at speech in the second language. Thirdly many student are self conscious and do not like to make mistakes or to appear stupid in front of their peers. Lastly, they are afraid or failure, laughter and ridicule. The desire to speak is real, but the psychological and social obstacles to speaking are just as real.
    Mulyadi, (1989:46) states that the students might be very afraid of making mistakes in front of their teacher and friends. The students are often reluctant to speak English because firstly, they are very afraid of making mistake. Secondly, they lack the words and phrases to express their ideas in English. Thirdly, the classroom activities often finish in the classroom without any follow up. Finally, it is considered impolite in our society to speak in a language that other people around us don’t speak especially in public places (Safnil:1990:67)
    Rivers in Subramaniyan A Nambiar (1985:45)
    “The problem of mastering the oral skill from the teacher point of view are: the teaching of speaking skill is more demanding on the teacher than the teaching of any other language skill. For this reason many teachers give up the attempts to teach it”
    An English teacher in junior high school needs to face the weaknesses of their students in speaking English, on the other hand, he/she also needs to recognize the demand of our national English curriculum. To solve this condition, the English teacher should know what techniques are suitable for teaching English communicatively, especially in talking or speaking. One of such techniques is information gap.
    Information gap is one students know something that another does not. Only by bridging the gap, through the use of English, can be talk be accomplished. In other words, information gap is the information that is not know by the other person. One person have a piece of information or opinion that the other person doesn’t know. Thus, to solve this problem, or gap, someone should share or exchange information to each other in order to find the ideas or opinions.
    The information gap is an effective techniques because 1) provides reasons as to what to say or what to begin to say, 2) provides an image persons, 3) helps the teacher in making up commutative activities and 4) is attractive for the learners. (Klippel in Sulkan, 2000:7). Norman, at all, in Sulkan (2000) also recommends the use of information gap
    The information gap is useful for helping students in speaking, because the action encourages the students to speak. Based on the activity the students have basic reasons as to what to say what to say and what to start to say.
    In the information gap activities, the students sill be eager and active in talking. They will be sharing their information through activities. The information gap activities may solve students difficulty in expressing their ideas or opinion, due to reluctance to speak up. Thus, the use of information gap technique in teaching English especially in teaching speaking may be solving the difficulties of English students in expressing their ideas or opinion.

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  71. C. CONCLUSION
    Based on the discussion above, we can conclude that:
    a) Information gap is one students know something that another does not. Only by bridging the gap, through the use of English, can be talk be accomplished. In other words, information gap is the information that is not know by the other person.

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  72. 4. The procedure of using Information Gap
    The procedure of using gap is as follows:
    a. Teacher activities
    Teacher activities consist of :
     Preparing the material of hand out
     Dividing the students into group of pair and group works
     Distributing the materials in different pieces of paper to A and B to each pair.
     Giving instruction clearly
     Monitoring the activity
     Evaluating activity
    b. Students activities
    The students activities include:
     Receiving the materials of handout A and B
     Trying out the materials
     Working in pair and groups by questioning and answering each other
     Writing the ideas in the blank space
     Changing the partners with many difference ways
     Changing the pieces to each other
     Practicing the materials in front of the class in turns

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  73. TEACHING SPEAKING THROUGH
    CONTEXTUAL TEACHING AND LEARNING (CTL) APPROACH AT SMA










    By
    UMMU AIMANA
    NIM. 206 323 3748



    STUDY PROGRAM OF ENGLISH EDUCATION
    TARBIYAH DEPARTEMENT
    SEKOLAH TINGGI AGAMA ISLAM NEGERI BENGKULU
    2010


    TEACHING SPEAKING THROUGH
    CONTEXTUAL TEACHING AND LEARNING (CTL) APPROACH AT SMA

    A. Introduction
    To support the teaching and learning of English, there are several curriculums that is designed by Indonesian Government. They offer a compulsory approach communicative approach as orientation in teaching and learning English. In implementing the communicative approach as orientation in teaching learning English, there must be some targets that have to achieved by the teachers. Those targets can be a student's score achievement such as making progress of the students' perspective, achieving their specific aims as a result of their teaching learning activities and the important one is improving students' ability especially in speaking.
    Sukmayati (in an Abstract on February 2010) said that Speaking is one of the four language skills that must be taught to students. Even thought it is an obligatory skill in English language teaching, speaking is often considered timid so that many teachers and students avoid teaching and learning it. Consequently, in the teaching and learning of this skill, many problems still occur. For the examples, the students are not able to speak English, the students have low motivation in speaking English, the teacher apply insufficient teaching strategy and media. Based on these problems, there is an alternative approach in the teaching of speaking that teacher usually applied. That is Contextual Teaching and Learning (CTL) Approach.
    According to Setiyadi (2008 : 6.11) Contextual Teaching and Learning claims that learning will meaningful when teachers are able to relate the materials to be studied to the context of the real life and learners are actively involved to experience or act out what they are learning or studying.this means that the teachers have to be creative to find the right. It means that the teachers have to be creative to find the right solution so that the students are most likely to keep studying.
    Based on Texacollaborative (in an article on March 2010) the majority of students are unable to make connections between what they are learning and how that knowledge will be used.
    The Contextual Teaching and Learning itself has become an interesting topic to be discussed, the writer is conducted the concept as away to improve teaching and learning which quite determines the students' success in learning.

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  74. DIVISION ( STAD ) COOPERATIVE LEARNING MODEL
    By reny pebriani
    A. INTRODUCTION
    English is one of an important language that can be used to make communication in international relation. The ability of using English practice by everyone, especial for students. The students who learn English should be provided with the four basic skills, namely reading, speaking, listening, and writing. They support each other and all of them are crucial in learning English. One of the language skills that emphasis on speaking. Different people have different ways of learning English speaking. If the English focused on the grammar and vocabulary, it will not enable the students to speak English fluently, however they should progress their reaction,and interaction of sustained conversation. The practising of English that is basically stained must always be the priority. The lack of English practice will make the English Study Program Students difficult to express their English. The practicing of English is one of efforts to increase the speaking ability. `
    To support the teaching and learning of English, Indonesia Goverment has designed several curriculums, currently offers a compulsory approach-communicative approach as orientation in teaching and learning English. In implementation the communicative approach in teaching learning English, there must be some targets that have to be achieved by the teachers. Those targets can be a students’ score achievement such as improving students’ ability, making progress of the students’ perspective, achieving their specific aims as a result of their teaching learning activities. To achieve those targets, there are several techniques and srrategies that teacher usually used. According to Colen and Chan ( 1990 : 323 ) the strategies are competition, are competition, Individual Goal Achievement, and Cooperative Learning. Most teachers use Individual Goal Achievement technique to improve students’ English skill in their teaching is individual goal achievement as conventional technique that usually used. However, the student’s score at the end of their study are still low.
    Based on the reason above the writer focussed the study on implementing techniques and strategies, as a main problem in teaching speaking. Concerning that matter on Jhonson and Jhonson theory ( 1983 ) he states that ;
    “cooperative learning is a successful teaching strategy in which small teams, each with students of different levels of ability, use a variety of learning activities to improve their understanding of asubject. Each member of team is responsible not only for learning what is taught but also for helping teammates learn, thus creating an atmosphere of acievement. Student work through the assigment untill all group members succsessfully understand and complete it.
    Based on the statement and several advantages of Cooperative Learning Strategy above, the writer is conducted the techniques and strategies as a way to improve teaching and learning which quite determines the students’ success in learning. From the explanations above, the writer choose cooperative learning of Student Teams Achievement Division ( STAD ). Cooperative Learning of STAD is a form of cooperative learning that uses multy-ability learning teams to tech specific forms of content-facts, concepts, generalizations, principle, academic rules, and skill. There are questions to explanation student teams achievement division ( STAD ) cooperative learning model :

     What is the student teams achivement division ( STAD ) cooperative learning model ?
     Why use STAD cooperative learning model in teaching speaking ?
     How apply student teams achievement division ( STAD ) cooperative learning model in the class ?

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  75. B. DISCUSSION
    a. The Importance of Speaking Skill

    The application of conquences for speaking in varieties activity and spoken sucs as newspaper, magazines, record conversation, radio and television programs have shown some signs of adequate avidence that speaking skill was important in English. It was used especially for communication so that comprehension of speaking was very needed by students in order to get achievement of the target in speaking as productive skill. English Study Program Students should be aware of misunderstanding. They have to take the iniative for speaking actively because it is the most important in developing speaking ability. Widdowson ( 1984 : 27 ) states that speaking is the active productve skill.
    The students have to reliaze their weakness English speaking. They should try the communicative. Smith ( 1984 ) states that we must recognize that responbility for effective communication was shared by both the speaker and listener. Thomson ( 1996 : states that speaking is one of the language skill where students use other words in an ordinary voice. It can help them, how to be perfect in speaking and the students must be know the characteristics of a successful speaking activity, learners talk a lot, participation is even, motivation is high and language is of an acceptable.

    b. The basic concept of Cooperative Learning of STAD Model

    According to Eggen (1996 : 283 ) Student Teams Achievement Division ( STAD ) is form of cooperative learning that uses multy-ability learning teams to teach specific forms of content – facts, concepts, generalizations, principles, academic rules, and skills. There are two major theoritical perspective related to cooperative learning motivational and cognitive. The motivational theories of cooperative learning emphasize the students’incentive to do academic work, while the cognitive theories emphasize the effects of working together.
    Motivational theories related to cooperative learning focus on reward and goal structures. One of the elements of cooperative learning is positive interpendence, where students perceive that their success or failure lies within their working together as a group. From a motivational perspective,cooperative learning goal structure creates a situation in which the only way group members can attain their personal goals is if the group is successful. Therefore, in order to attain their personal goals, students are likely to encourage members within the group to do whatever helps the group to succed and to help one another with a group task.

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  76. C. CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS
    A. Conclusion
    The conclusion of this writer were derived from the description and discussion in the previous chapter. The researcher also give suggestions that were related to the way of how to manage the STAD Cooperative Learning Model . Hopefully, these suggestions could overcome the weakness of the learning process. Generally,Student Teams Achievement Divisions ( STAD ) Cooperative Learning Model is better than work individually.

    B. Suggestion

    The writer suggest that sometimes teacher needs to use STAD Cooperative Learning method in teaching speaking. There are some reasons to use this method. First, STAD Cooperative Learning has some beneficials in training students to be a good participants in teaching activity. Second, this writer showed that the speaking achievement was higher if they learned in STAD Cooperative Learning.
    The clever students domination is needed to lead the other students in learning the speaking materials given. Moreever it is very hard to get group’s members that are really similar becaused of the large number of students’ attitude factors ( Jakobovits, 1970).
    The writer also suggests in overcoming the STAD Cooperative Learning weaknesses, a teacher does not need to conduct large STAD Cooperative Learning but some groups of four. Beside it is easy to arrange the students’ the seats, it is also easy to control the students’ participation in learning.





















    REFERENCES


    Brown. 1983. Teaching The Spoken Language. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press.
    Cole, peter and chan. 1997. Method and strategies For Special Education. New Castle : Department of Education University of New Castle.
    Paul D, Eggen.1996. strategies For Teacher. United States of America : A Simon and Schuster Company.
    Pattison, P. 1987. Developing Communication Skill. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press.

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  77. c. STAD Cooperative Learning Model : why use it ?
    The cooperative learning play very important rules in several
    aspects, they are :
    a. Behaviorist, here cooperayive learning is applied for giving motivation, group rewards, and modification whole class is rewarded for collective efforts.
    b. Social explanation, the sicial aspect of the cooperative learning emphasize the power of social cohesiveness and sustain individual efforts.
    c. Cognitive perspective of cooperative learning,several kinds of cognitive perpective emphasis of the processing occurance in cooperative learning, they are : students development, cognitive elaboration, practice and feedback.
    The students have to reliaze their weakness English speaking. They shoul try the communicative. Smith (1984) states that we must recognize that responbility for effective was shared by the speaker and listenetaestr. Pattison (1987) s that speaking is one of the language skill where students use other words in an ordinary voice. It can help thm, how to be perfect in speaking and the students must be know the characteristics of asuccessful speaking activity, learners talk a lot, paticipation is even, motivation is high and language is an accepptable. STAD of cooperative learning one of manner in learning speaking because where students are able to work together, face to face interaction to promoting success of group members by supporting each other, help students develop skills in oral communication and increase retention and give motivation for students.

    d. Implementation Lesson Using the STAD Cooperative Learning Model

    Eggen (1996) cooperative learning with type of STAD, teachers need to state directions or instructions that describe in clear, precise terms exactly what students are to do, in what order, with materials, and when appropriate, what students are to generate as evidence of their mastery of targeted content and skills. These directions are given to students before they engage in their group learning efforts. Teachers should organize the four of five members groups so that students are mixed as hetrogeneously as possible, first according to academic abilities and then on the basis of ethnic backgrounds, race and gender. Students should not be allowed to form their groups based on friendship or cliques.
    Implementing STAD cooperative learning lessons is much like implementing lessons with the Direct-Instruction Model. The lesson is introduced, the content is explained, and students are involved in guided practice. Then, team study takes the place of independent practice. However, STAD differs from the simple Direct-Intruction Model in that some instruction is often required to ensure a smooth transition from whole-group to team study, and testing, improvement points , and team recognition are integral parts of STAD. These phases are outlined in table.

    Phase Purpose
    Intructions 1.introduce lesson
    2. Explain and model content
    3. provide guided practice

    Transition to teams Move students from whole group to learning teams
    Team study and monitoring Ensure that groups are functioning effectively
    Testing 1.Provide feedback about learning.
    2.Provide basis for awarding improvement points
    Recognition of achivement Increase motivation

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  78. TEACHING SPEAKING THROUGH
    CONTEXTUAL TEACHING AND LEARNING (CTL) APPROACH AT SMA
    By UMMU AIMANA

    A. Introduction
    To support the teaching and learning of English, there are several curriculums that is designed by Indonesian Government. They offer a compulsory approach communicative approach as orientation in teaching and learning English. In implementing the communicative approach as orientation in teaching learning English, there must be some targets that have to achieved by the teachers. Those targets can be a student's score achievement such as making progress of the students' perspective, achieving their specific aims as a result of their teaching learning activities and the important one is improving students' ability especially in speaking.
    Sukmayati (in an Abstract on February 2010) said that Speaking is one of the four language skills that must be taught to students. Even thought it is an obligatory skill in English language teaching, speaking is often considered timid so that many teachers and students avoid teaching and learning it. Consequently, in the teaching and learning of this skill, many problems still occur. For the examples, the students are not able to speak English, the students have low motivation in speaking English, the teacher apply insufficient teaching strategy and media. Based on these problems, there is an alternative approach in the teaching of speaking that teacher usually applied. That is Contextual Teaching and Learning (CTL) Approach.
    According to Setiyadi (2008 : 6.11) Contextual Teaching and Learning claims that learning will meaningful when teachers are able to relate the materials to be studied to the context of the real life and learners are actively involved to experience or act out what they are learning or studying.this means that the teachers have to be creative to find the right. It means that the teachers have to be creative to find the right solution so that the students are most likely to keep studying.
    Based on Texacollaborative (in an article on March 2010) the majority of students are unable to make connections between what they are learning and how that knowledge will be used.
    The Contextual Teaching and Learning itself has become an interesting topic to be discussed, the writer is conducted the concept as away to improve teaching and learning which quite determines the students' success in learning.

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  79. B. Discussion
    1. The Teaching Speaking
    Speaking English is the main goal of many adult learners. Their personalities play a large role in determining how quickly and how correctly they will accomplish this goal. Those who are risk takers unafraid of making mistakes will generally be more talkactive, but with many errors that could become hard to break habits. Conservative, shy students may take a long time to speak confidently, but when they do, their English often contains fewer errors and they will be proud of their English ability.
    Speaking lessons often tie in pronunciation and grammar, which are necessary for effective oral communication. Or a grammar or reading lesson may incorporate a speaking activity. Either way, the students will need some preparation before the speaking task. This includes introducing the topic and providing a model of the speech they are to produce. A model may not apply to discussion type activities, in which case students will need clear and specific instructions about the task to be accomplished. Then the students will practice with the actual speaking activity.
    The aim of teaching speaking is basically similar to that of the other language skills : listening, reading and writing in that the students are ultimately able to use the language accurately, fluentlyand appropriately with the context of situation. Teaching speaking however, gives emphases more on oral production as it is called a productive skill. The students in the class of speaking must be actively engaged to speak, they need to be provided with the various oral tasks or activities provoking them to practice speaking.

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  80. To develop speaking skills Hadfield in Setiyadi (2008 : 6.11) proposes : Setting up, Practice speaking, and feedback and Harmer in Setiyadi introduces EAS standing for Engage, Activate, and Study. The stages to teaching speaking proposed by Hadfield and Harmer differ only on the terms but they have three stages in common.
    Setting up or Engage is to introduce the students to the topic so that they are motivated to study it. The topic may be demonstrated to the whole class or the students may make materials to be used during speaking practice. Demonstaration of the topic can be made in order that the students find it easy to do the task provided by the teacher. This stage is intended for the students to get ready with what they have to do.
    Speaking Practice or activate stage , the second stage of teaching speaking is the main part of the speaking activity where the students are exposed to practice the topic introduced in the setting up or in the engage stage. The activities must be suited to the real life situations.
    In this stage the students are also provided with a number of different activities or tasks but in a fairly similar theme or topic of discussion. This is done in order that they are not suffered from boredom and are familiar with the topic so that they can fluently talk about it.
    The last stage of developing speaking skills is feedback or study. The teacher in this stage may ask the students to report back what they have talked about. If the activity has involved, for example, a discussion or a questionnaire, ask a few students to report back to you and the rest of the class. Study the followibg example :
    Teacher : Ani now you tell me how to ask for direction and Anto answers
    Ani : Excuse me, how do I get to the post office.
    Anto : sure, it is on Jln. Gajah mada on your left next to the drugstore.

    It is also important to give feedback on the language practiced. Use the notes the teacher made while monitoring the activities as the basis of the feedback. In the case of grammar and vocabulary errors, try to them on the board so that the students can see what is wrong. If a large number of the students have made the same mistake, you might need to spend some time to explaining or clarifying it. Make sure they have understood and perhaps ask them to do the activities again with a different partner. You might also like to make this language problem the topic of another lesson at a later date.

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  81. 2. The Teaching Speaking at SMA
    There are several problem in teaching speaking at SMA. They are as (1) the students are not able to speak English especially in describing thing, (2) the students have low motivation in speaking English, and (3) the teacher apply insufficient teaching strategy and media. Therefore, the writer realizes that these conditions should be changed. Based on some theories, the writer intends to apply an alternative approach in the teaching of speaking, that is Contextual Teaching and Learning (CTL) approach.

    3. The Theory of Contextual Teaching and Learning (CTL)
    The concept of the current approach to teaching-learning process so called contextual teaching and learning (CTL) claims that learning will meaningful when teachers are able to relate the materials to be studied to the context of the real life and learners are actively involved to experience or act out what they are learning or studying. This is in line with the paradigm of the mastery learning that the students or learners have to balance mastery of the topics or materials they are studying not only cognitively but also psychomotorically. This seems to improve the current teaching practice which focuses more on cognitive aspect regardless of, affective and psychomotoric ones. In other words, the students are mainly exposed to study the language instead of using it as a means of communication. As a result, they know the language but they are not able to speak even in very simple communication.
    According to Bandono (in an article on March 7, 2008) Contextual Teaching and Learning (CTL) is learning process that is purposed to help students in understanding the meaning of material with relates it toward their daily life context (private context, social and cultural), so that students have dinamic and flexible knowledge/skill. Guru Valah (in an thesis proposal on March 29, 2010) told that Contextual Teaching and Learning is an approach of learning that emphasizes on process of students' involvement to find the material that is learned and relates it with real life situation so that give motivation for the students to apply it in their life.
    There are seven learning components in applying the Contextual Teaching and Learning in the class room. They are constructivism, qoestioning, inquiry, learning community, modeling, reflection and authentic assesment.

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  82. 4. The Procedures of Using CTL
    The procedures of teaching speaking as Hadfield and Harmer in Setiyadi (2008) have in common are : Setting up or Enggage, Practice speaking or Activate and Feedback or Study.
    There are several stages of speaking activities by using CTL that may meet the three procedures of teaching speaking above :
    a. Teacher explains the learning purposes or basic competence which must be achieved by students and also the advantages of learning process that will be learned.
    b. Teacher explains the CTL approach
    c. Students are divided into several group based on the number of students
    d. Teacher gives task for the students to do the observation based on the material who is given by the teacher, for example, the material is direction, the teacher asks the students to do the observation in their school and make a simple map of their school
    e. Teacher gives questions for the students about the task that must be done by students
    f. Students do the observation in their own group
    g. Students discuss the result of their observation with the member of group
    h. Students give the result of group discussion to the teacher before presentation in front of class
    i. Students discuss the observation result with the other group. Each of group should present the observation result
    j. Presenter answers the questions from the other group
    k. During the presentation, teacher gives evaluation
    l. Teacher give addition or explain the parts of material that should be emphasized
    m. Teacher helps the students to concluse the observation result
    n. Students and teacher do the reflection toward the process and learning result
    o. Teacher gives the authentic assesment.

    5. Apologies of CTL
    a. CTL is a bridge between the classroom and the real life, so make the students interest with the topic of learning.
    b. Students are active
    c. Teacher is creative
    d. Students can work in group
    e. Using several sources so that students won't feel bore
    f. Cooperation is created between students.

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  83. C. Conclusion
    According CTL, learning occurs only when students process new information or knowledge in such a way that it makes sense to the in their own frames of reference (their own inner worlds of memory, experience, and response). This approach to learning and teaching assumes that the mind naturally seeks meaning in context that is in relation to the person's current environment and that it does so by searching for relationships that make sense and appear useful.
    The students in speaking activities by using CTL approach need to be given a lot of oral opportunities to practice the language suited to the real life communication.























    REFERENCE

    http://bandono.web.id/2008/03/07/menyusun-model-pembelajaran-contextual-teaching-and-learning-ctl.php

    http://guruvalah1.20m.com/proposal_ptk_pembelajaran_ctl.pdf

    http://pps-ynsyah.net/wp-content/uploads/2010/02/ABSTRACT-buk-sukma.pdf

    http://www.texacollaborative.org/WhatIsCTL.htm

    Setiyadi, Bambang. 2008. TEFL 2. Jakarta : Universitas Terbuka

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  84. IMPROVING STUDENTS READING MOTIVATION BY USING ANECDOTE






    PAPER


    By

    RIRIN PRONIGE
    206 323 3728






    ENGLISH EDUCATION STUDY PROGRAM
    TARBIYAH DEPARTMENT
    SEKOLAH TINGGI AGAMA ISLAM NEGERI
    (STAIN) BENGKULU
    2010

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  85. INTRODUCTION

    Teaching english in our contry is to provide students not only with English structure,vocabulary,speaking and writing.but also reading as way to help the students to potion the imformation presented in English.language is an important element in people life.without language some one will get difficultyin communication.Nowdays,english is the important language because almost all the source of knowledge are written and transferred in english.
    Grabe (1991:74) in Andriani (2006:9) A reading components perspective in a appropriate research direction to the extent that such on approatch leads to important insights info the reading process. Still decure (1989 : 36 ) in ani andriani ( 2006 : 9 ) that reading is sharing of mind between the writes and the reader. Reading with comprehension it not nsimple process. More concern is required from the reader to force his/her ability to understand what he/she red.
    Reading comprehension is the capability to recognize the information and it’s offen referred to as a complex cognitive. Pearson and johson ( cited in nunan ) ( 1978:67 ) viewet reading comprehension as a process of interaction between the reader and the text.the reader is the person who can interpret what is hidden or obscure, and a text is piace when there is a process of transfer of a message from the text to the reader.
    Reading comprehension is the process to get more understanding from the text, according to lenon in maryanto (1977:5) the comprehension of reading process has to be able to take much imformation that relate to the facts.generalization and interesting definition of reading material.
    Based on the explanation above,the writer interested to explain using anecdote to improve students reading motivation .this paper will give explanation about :
    1.What the definition of reading ?
    2.What the definition of anecdote ?
    3.How to applay this technique in learning process ?

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  86. DISCUSSION


    A. Definition Of Reading
    Reading is one of imfortant skill in english and and it has many process that provided for the students abilities to improve their comprehension of reading text.
    According to chall ( 1967:55) in erna sugiharti (2004:6), reading is understanding printed language and reacting to it-reacting in the brod sence of understanding both literal and interpretative incur readiness program. The major privation is four unstanding what is reading. We place a lot of emphasis on spoken in language pattern and on understanding concepts. In the teaching reading, the teachers teach the pupil reading not only saying the words, but try to give the students appreciation of the difference between the real and fanciful. Its now generally known that reading is one of the integrated skills of english. According to vacca, et al (1987) as quoted by maryanto(1997),reading is thinking process which should be taught and it is a language and cognitive process that taking place behind the eyes. Iother words, comprehension is that ability to understand what ones have read.
    Reading is receptive language process.it is psycholinguistic process in that it stars with a linguistic surface representation encoded by a writer and end with meaning,which the reader construts (Carrel,1988:12).So,reading as a study is very important,and a toolto relate between write and reader.Cameron (2001:125) in Ani andriani (2006:7) express that although reading for understanding,reading does link to speaking,as written text,they may appear to by pass turing text into talk and go straight to understanding.Reading brings together visual information from written symbol,phonological information from the sounds thosessymbol make when spoken, and semantic information fro the conventional meaning associated with the words as sounds and symbols.
    According to langan (2002: 359) in ismah hayati (2006: 4) reading comprehension is the capability of understanding what the reader read. In this understanding the reader should recognizing definition and example, enumerations, heading and sub headings, signal words, main ideas in paragrafh and short election, knowing how to outline, how to summarize, and understanding grafhs and tables. Comprehension is achieved gradually, as you move from a general feeling about what something means to a deeper level of understanding. Further, langan (2002: 359) says that the first five

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  87. skills include the ability to recognize and use important elements of written material: the next two skills are technique that will help reader takes effective study notes: and the last skill will assist reader in interpreting and understanding the material presented in graphs and tables. Tarigan (1987: 7) reveals that readinf is process that is that is done and used by reader to get message that want to be transmitted by the writer through words media or written language. A process that made the group of words be the units and in order that the meaning of words individually can be understood. In linguistics field, reading is a recording and decoding process. Different from speaking and writing that involved encoding. Decoding is a process for relating the written word and oral language meaning.
    Reading comprehension programs has the aims in order that the students get Tarigan ,(1985:37) :(1) finding the main idea of the sentsnces,paragraph or the text,(2) choosing the important item,( following the indicates,(4)determining the reading element organization,(5) finding the visual form of the written ,(6) Drawing the conclusion ,(7) Guessing meaning and the assumption the effects and also the conclusion,(8) conclusion what had been reader it,(9) Disttinguishing the fact of the opinions ,(10) Getting information the several of the facilities, like encyclopedia,atlas and map.
    Penny ur (1996), who states that reading is the process of getting and understanding of some of words from the text. It means that we need to understand some of the words in order to understand the meaning of the text. We gather the meaning from the words we read and the words that we have understood. Reading with comprehension requires the students to understand detail about the text. It can interpreted that the important thing in reading is the understanding.Grellts (1985) in widiasih (2001),states that reading comprehension is understand that gist of the text in detal.
    According to Greenwood (1988:11) in Ismah Hayati (2006:5), there are three in reading:
    1. Pre- reading
    The pre- reading stage whets the students appeties and stimulaties curiosity to read;it can provide a need to read to complete an activity or confirm an idea;and it can persuade the students that as perception or hypothesis is concerned there are no right or wrong answer, only different ones.

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  88. 2. While-reading
    In this stage, studetns should be actively engage in negotiation for meaning. Student must be involved in activities. Which enable them to respond cognitively,emotionally, and imaginatively to imaginative writing.
    3 After-reading
    the activity in this section are generated by the texs and extended its potential for meaningful language work. The task can not be perfotned without the text, that is, they can not replace the texs. Frequently, they involved the students in detailed revisions for the students to do so, and the varios skills being practiced and develop in each activity will increase understanding and subsequently pleasure reades.
    According to Krashen and Tarrel (1990:135),there are four types of reading skills.They are :
    1 Scanning
    Scanning is making aquik overview of passage,looking for specipic information. It commonly occurs when using telephone book,reading the classified ads,ordering from a menu and so forth.
    2 Skimming
    Uses the same approach,except that instead of concentrating on specific information,we are looking for the main idea or general gist of a pessage.
    3. Extensive Reading rapid reading for main ideas of large amount of text.
    4. Intensive reading is reading for main complete understanding of an entire text.

    Nuttal (1991 : 38) says that intensive reading involves approaching the text under the guidance of a teacher or a task that forces the students to focus on the text. The aim is to arrive at an understanding, not only of what the text means, but how the meaning is produced. Then, extensive reading is often assumed that in order to understanding the whole, we must first understand the parts (sentences, paragrafhs, chapters) of which it is made up.
    The aims of reading are to get comprehension into reach the goal, the reader use information to get graph phonic information. In order to the third of techniques, easily understand in reading. Any skill needed reader by teaching reading, they are: (1)

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  89. incident.feature of anecdote using exclamation word,using imperative, using rhetoric question,using acting verb,using of time,using simple past tense.

    C. Procedures In Teaching Reading By Using Anecdote

    1) Before doing the action ,the teacher give pre-test to students.the aim of pre-test was to know the student skill in reading.
    2) The teacher give some general texts for the student and than the student read the text which divide into multiple choice.
    3) The teacher collected and give score.

    D. The Advantages Of Using Anecdote
    1. To make students easier in doing the task and understanding the text.
    2. The students can answer or do the task on own words.




















    CONCLUSION

    The research found the anecdote was effective in improving students interest reading comprehension,anecdote make the students interest in learning english ,especially for reading material. The students felt enjoyable and be come enthusiast with material given and the students were more interest to learn the english lesson.

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  90. scanning is the skill move they eyes movement in reading of left-rigght to every row of reading sentences, (2) Fixing is reading skill of concentration the sight vision to lines of reading sentences, (3) Selecting is choose of input of key lines which to fluent process of information. (4) Predicting is meaning prediction of garfish by use grammatical and the meaning sensitively of the decoding process, (5) Forming is perception to make skill based on selection process and prediction, (6) Searching is skill of his brain taking, the knowledge about language, (7) Tentative choosing and syntactic, (9) Testing group phonic, (10) Regressing, (11) Dwcoding is skill to integrating of mesning information is get before-process, oka (1974: 28) in Erna Sugiharti (2004: 8).

    B. Anecdote
    AS been mention bepore to Ann charter in Rosita (2000) anecdote is a brief, unified narration of one incidents or episode. Often humors and often based on an actual even some very good short story may cinsist of nothing more than an anecdote. Others may be made up of several anecdote strung together, or may use one or more anecdote as a way advancing the story, or short reading that make the readers laugh. We could say that an anecdote contains himoraus stories that make laugh.
    The researcher also found anecdote in oxford dictionary (1988:24) that is a narrative of amusing or interesting incident. Amusing here is something that cause the reader laugh.
    Here we could seen that humorous in anecdote is also interested material given to student because it contains knowledge, education and also in order they used to read other characters beside the text that they usual learn at scool.
    The students would interest reading activity if the material were interesting and coul make them enjoy in teaching learning process. So cause the interesting material could grow up the students motivation and also that could make the students to understand the reading material a lot. The material here interesting enough and it’s could make them happy while they get information and knowledge on it.
    Anecdote is a text which retells,funny anusual incidents in fact or imagination.it’s purpose of anecdote is : abstract, orientation,crisis and

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  91. REFERENCES


    Arikunto,Suharsimi.2006. Procedur Penelitian Praktek. Jakarta:Rineka Ilmu.
    Azar,S.Betty.1941.Fundamental of English Grammar Regents/Prenticehall:Englewood cliffs.
    Nunan,David,1989.Understanding Language classroom.New york London:Prentice Hall.
    Menser martin G. 1995. Oxford learner’s pocket dictionary: oxford university press.
    Hariyanto,sugeng. 1995. The Humorous Stories Of Nasredin. Yokyakarta: konsius.
    Alexander,L.G.1975.Developing Skill. Yogya:Kanisius.
    Alexander,L.G.1975.Practice and Progres.Yogya:Kanisius.
    Depikbud.1984.Kurikulum SLTP (GBPP).Jakarta : Balai Pustaka.
    Goodwyn, Adrew. 1992. English teaching and Media Education. Philadelphia : Open university Press.
    Hijl, leslie.A. 1980. Elementary Anecdotes in American English. Londodn: Oxford University Press.
    Homby,AS. 1985. Oxford Learner Dictinary of Current Englih. London: Oxford university Press.
    Kime, Elaine and Pamela Hartman. 1985. Interaction, A Reading Skill Books. London: Random House.

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  92. IMPROVING STUDENT’S READING COMPREHENSION THROUGH STORYTELLING TEACHING TECHNIQUE
    By: Siti Sangadah
    206 323 3734
    INTRODUCTION
    Nowadays, English as international language is very important to learn. It has become compulsory subject from elementary school up to university level. There are four skill which have important role in mastering English, namely, listening, speaking, writing and reading. Reading is one the most important skill in learning a language. Especially for Indonesian student the skill in reading is a tool to get information. The students must know how to be a good reader. According to Nuttal (1996:40), reading is an activity to understand the message from a text and the reader read a text in order to reach the information that is sent by the writer. So, the successful reader is concerned with the meaning of the written language. The students sometime have got the difficulties to find out the meaning of the reading text, so they are not interesting to read, and cannot enjoyable with the reading text. As a teacher, we have to able to build their curiosity to read, because through the curiosity, their motivation to know the meanings of the reading will come out. In this case, the teacher should be able to create the learning condition enjoyable for the students.
    There are many teaching technique in teaching reading comprehension but the writer only focused on storytelling teaching technique to improve student reading comprehension. Nick Peim (1993:13) stated that story telling can be used in teaching and learning process. It is useful for learning. Therefore, there are two reasons that interested in this topic. First, telling the stories can help the students realize that they can find a pleasure in reading, because telling the story is not just makes the student s listen the experience, but also they can interact as the participants to solve the problem of the characters as the plot unfolds. Second, through telling the stories the students can improve their ability to understand the meaning of words and it influences students, motivation to read and write, and their speaking and listening skill as well. Here the teacher plays as a major role in the process of teaching and learning. As a storyteller should learn the story before telling it to students, because to be a storyteller should know some skill in storytelling. Jalago (1992:135) states these story skills in storytelling include: knowing how to begin a story, explaining the setting, describing character, identifying theme of the story sequencing event explaining reaction and concluding the story.

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  93. DISCUSSION
    a. Concept of Reading Comprehension
    Reading comprehension is the capability of understanding what the reader read. In reading the reader needs to perceive and decode letters, understand all of the words, and find out the meaning of the text. The reader’s understanding comes from understanding the words of the text. According to Ur (1996) reading is the process of getting and understanding of some of word from the text. It means that we need to understand some of the words in order to understand the meaning of the text. We gather the meaning from the words we read and the words that we have understood. Reading with comprehension involves not only understanding through the writers mind. Reading with comprehension requires the students to understand detail about the text. It can be interpreted that the important thing in reading is the understanding. Oka (1974:72) states the reading comprehension has the same meaning with silence reading. It has objective to comprehend the writers’ idea and give improves to the students in reading learning. They read without the sound and they can comprehend content of the text which they are reading. According to Taringan (1985:37), reading comprehension program has the aims in order that the students get:
    1. Finding the main idea of the sentences, paragraph, of the text.
    2. Choosing the important items.
    3. Following the indicates.
    4. Determining the reading element organization.
    5. Finding the visual form of the written.
    6. Drawing the conclusion.
    7. Guessing meaning and the assumption the effect and also the conclusion.
    8. Conclusion what had been reader it.
    9. Distinguishing the fact of the opinions.
    10. Getting information the several of the facilities, like encyclopedia, atlas, and map.
    b. Reading Stages
    According to Greenwood (1988:11), there are three stages in reading. They are: pre-reading, while reading, and after reading. The explanations are as follows:
    1. Pre-reading
    The pre-reading stage the students appetites and stimulate curiosity to read; it can persuade the students that as far as perception or hypothesis is concerned there are not right or wrong answers, only different ones.
    2. While reading
    In this stage, students should be actively engaged in negotiation for meaning students must be involved in activities, which enable them to respond cognitively, emotionally, and imaginatively to imaginative writing.
    3. After reading
    The activities in this section as generated by the text and extend its potential for meaningful language work. The task can not be performed without the text. That is, they can not replace the text. Frequently, they involve the students in detailed revision and scrutiny of the author words, but at all times there is a valid reason for the students to do so, and the various skills being understand and develop in each activity will increase understanding and subsequently pleasure in future reader.
    c. Concept of Storytelling
    Storytelling teaching technique is a technique in teaching English reading comprehension by using short story followed by mimes, gestures, intonation, and expression. Storytelling for children is one of the oldest forms to communication. It has been done by the people especially housewife long time ago. Storytelling itself means telling the story to people or to children. According to Petty and Jensen (1980:144) storytelling is an act of sharing even more intimate then reading to another person or to a group. It must an enjoyable experience for both the teller

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  94. IMPROVING STUDENTS' SPEAKING ABILITY
    BY USING ASK AND ANSWER

    ANNISA TURROHMAH
    NIM : 206 323 3743


    INTRODUCTION
    In Indonesia, English has a very important position. Because it is taught as the first foreign language. As the first foreign language English is the most common language which is used after the official language. There are four skills needed to be mastered by the students. The are listening, speaking, reading, and writing. In learning a language, the four skills can not be separated one another, because each skill influences another skills. Inability to master four skills will result failure to communicate in the target language.
    Aside from the other skills, speaking is one of the important roles in mastering English because he/she can express their ideas and thought to the listener. Brown and Yule (1995: 13) state that the purpose of the speaker in speaking is primarily to communicate his message rather than to be nice to the listener.
    In teaching learning process, the students participation is very important. The students must practice English by speaking but in fact, a lot of students in the class room do not in value actively. They reluctant to answer the teacher’s question, Safnil (1991: 67) another possible reason why students are unwilling to speak English is that lack of the words and phrases to express their ideas in English.
    Based on the explanation above, the teacher will try to solve this problem in other to make the students be active and make students to speak up in the class room answering questions. Because most of the students are reluctant and shy to speak up. Furthermore the students do not the ways how to sepak.
    - What is ask and answer?
    - What is procedures ask and answer?
    - How to teach of ask and answer?

    DISCUSSION
    Definition of Speaking
    Speaking is the productive skill in the oral mode. There are three kinds of speaking situations in which we find our selves:
    - Interactive
    - Partially interactive, and
    - Non-interactive.
    Interactive speaking situations include face to-face conversations and telephone calls, in which we are alternately listening and speaking, and in which we have a chance to ask for clarification, repetition, or slower speech from our conversation partner. Some speaking situations are partially interactive, such as when giving a speech to a live audience, where the convention is that the audience does not interrupt the speech. The speaker nevertheless can see the audience and judge from the expressions on their faces and body language whether or not he or she is being understood.
    Some few speaking situations may be totally non-interactive, such as when recording a speech for a radio broadcast. Here are some of the micro-skills involved in speaking. The speaker has to:
    - Pronounce the distinctive sounds of a language clearly enough so that people can distinguish them. This includes making tonal distinctions.
    - Use stress and rhythmic patterns, and intonation patterns of the language clearly enough so that people can understand what is said.

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  95. and listener. Teacher should not to attempt to tell stories that they do not well. Storytelling by the teacher is closely related to the practice of reading to children.
    To tell the stories to the student is not an easy task. It needs special and important preparation. The storyteller should practice the story related to the students’ experience and should have good presentation. Ways in presenting the stories are the essential thing and to be the key that can influence the students’ success in learning. Jalago (1992:147) states that there are two ways of telling the stories. They are traditional storytelling and storytelling with media. The traditional way is only use voice and gesture to share a story but storytelling with media is telling story with flannel-board figures, puppets, pictures and so forth.
    The purposes of telling story to the children is to help create an atmosphere in which a community of readers and writers get the support they need to share their stories (Weinstein, 1992:7) and the storytelling helps students understand and later recall information.
    The storyteller’s tools in presenting the story
    1. Voice
    2. Natural gesture and movement
    3. Sense of timing
    4. Eyes contact
    5. Expressive
    Jalogo (1992:147) states that the following items should be carefully considered as a storyteller in preparing a story to tell, namely:
    1. Know the story and practice it until there is no change of forgetting it.
    2. Tell the story simply, directly, and body maximum effect
    3. Trust the medium words and the rich heritage of the oral tradition
    4. Pace your telling by changing the tempo when necessary and using pauses effectively
    5. Establish report with your listener to make the story come alive for them
    d. Applying teaching reading storytelling in the classroom
    1. Choosing the stories that are a good match and interesting for the students.
    2. The teacher read the story with storytelling technique and storyteller’s tool from the title until the end, and the teacher choose a simple word, so easy to understand by the students.
    3. In order to make the student understood more, the teacher translate the story into Bahasa Indonesia.
    4. To knowing as far as to be student’s understanding about story, the student were assigned to make summary and retell story with students own word in front of the class.


    CONCLUSION
    Reading comprehension is the capability of understanding what the reader read. And storytelling teaching technique is a technique in teaching English reading comprehension by using short story followed by mimes, gestures, intonation, and expression. And storytelling to children help the children create an atmosphere in which a community of readers and writers get the support they need to share their stories and the storytelling helps students understand and later recall information. So storytelling technique is an effective technique in teaching reading comprehension.













    REFERENNCE

    Greenwood, Jean. 1988. Class Reader. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Jalango, Mary R. 1992. Early Children Language Arts. Boston MA: Allyn and Bacon, Inc.

    Nuttal,, Christine. 1989. Teaching Reading Skill in a Foreign Language. London: Heinemann.

    Oka, I Gusti Nugrah.1974. Pengantar Membaca dan Pengajarannya. Surabaya: Usaha Nasional.
    Tarigan, Henry Guntur. 1985. Membaca Expressive. Bandung: Aksara.
    Ur, Penny. 1997. A Course in Language Teaching. New York: Cambridge University.
    Weinstein, C, J. 1992. Understanding and Developing Language Test. Europe:
    Practice Hall Europe

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  96. - Use the correct forms of words. This may mean, for example, changes in the tense, case, or gender.
    - Put words together in correct word order.
    - Use vocabulary appropriately.
    - Use the register or language variety that is appropriate to the situation and the relationship to the conversation partner.
    - Make clear to the listener the main sentence constituents, such as subject, verb, object, by whatever means the language uses.
    - Make the main ideas stand out from supporting ideas or information.
    - Make the discourse hang together so that people can follow what you are saying.
    According to Tarigan H.G (1990: 15), speaking that is also called by oral communication or word to express the mind, idea, and feeling.
    According to Bambang (2008: 614) there are many different techniques to create meaningful context for speaking practice in English. For example: ask and answer, describe and draw, discussion, guessing, remembering, miming, ordering, completing a form or questionnaire, and role play.
    The examples of the procedure of each different technique speaking in the classroom are:
    a. Ask and answer
    Ask the students to describe their photos to the front on the board. For example “This is my sister, she is 17 years old”. Help the student by asking questions, for example “Whose is this?” is this your brother?”
    b. Describe and draw
    Draw a comic figure in the board with different pictures to the ones on the two posters. Ask learners to describe it, if necessary using speech bubble. Practice the stress pattern taken from the sentence used by the students.
    For example: He/she has got a . . . . . .
    He/she has got . . . . . .
    His/her . . . . . is/are . . . . . .
    c. Discussion
    Ask a few students to make new sentences using, ‘we are both’ and ‘we have both got . . . . . about them selves and other students in the class.
    d. Guessing
    It is best played in groups of 3 or 4, but a demonstration game can be played with the whole class.
    For example: Do you work in door?
    Are you well paid?
    Is it dangerous job?
    e. Remembering
    The teacher may revise any prepositions the learners had problems with by asking individual learners about the location of objects in the classroom.
    For example:
    Teacher : where is my bag?
    Students : It is under the table.
    f. Ordering
    Review any sequences of numbers the learners had problems with practice in three. Teach the students to make this sound by putting their tongue between their teeth and breathing out.
    g. Miming
    Review any pronunciation problems the students had and make yes no questions.
    h. Role play

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  97. Ask a few students to tell the rest of the class about showing the directions.
    i. Completing a questionnaire
    Ask individual students to report back to the whole class on their partners like and dislikes. The teacher may write down the sentence frames up on the board to help them, for example: . . . . . likes . . . . . very much.
    He/she quite likes . . . . .
    He/she doesn’t like . . . . . very much
    He/she doesn’t like . . . . . at all.
    The teacher may also practice schwa sound as this vowel sound is very common in unstressed syllables in English, like in ‘banana’, ‘chocolate’, etc.

    The Teaching Speaking at Elementary School
    Teaching English to young learners is full of fun. Furthermore, in teaching speaking for beginners, to encourage them to speak English the teacher should have a set of specific technique, methodology and lesson plan, in order the techniques that the teacher uses are suitable with the students’ level, interest, and progress with the correct technique the learners are encouraged and motivated to speak automatically.
    According to Mc Graw Hill Companies (2004: 100), there is much more to teach speaking than simply getting students to talk, however. As with listening, we normally have specific purposes for communicating with others, such as asking the time of the next bus, asking for help at a store, or describing a problem to supervisor.

    Definition of Ask and Answers
    The Socratic method (or Method of Elenchus or Socratic Debate), named after the Classical Greek philosopher Socrates, is a form of inquiry and debate between individuals with opposing viewpoints based on asking and answering questions to stimulate critical thinking and to illuminate ideas. It is a dialectical method, often involving an oppositional discussion in which the defense of one point of view is pitted against the defense of another; one participant may lead another to contradict him in some way, strengthening the inquirer’s own point.
    The term Socratic questioning is used to describe a kind of questioning in which an original question is responded to as though it were an answer. This in turn forces the first questioner to reformulate a new question in light of the progress of the discourse.

    Procedure Using Ask and Answering
    Setting up
    a. Give all the learners sheets of paper.
    b. Ask them to close their eyes and imagine a photograph of their whole family.
    c. Ask for a volunteer to come to the front and copy his or her photo on the board. Ask him or her to describe the people in the picture.
    d. Then get the students to work in pairs or group telling each other about the people in the photos they have drawn.
    e. Ask the students to describe their photos to the rest of the class.

    CONCLUSION

    Based on the result in the previous chapter, the researcher concludes that the memorizing speaking using concept ask and answer gives positive effect toward teaching speaking and this technique increases the student’s speaking.
    The researcher suggest that sometimes in English teacher need to use technique speaking because it has some beneficial in training students to master speaking.



    REFERENCES


    Setiadi Bambang. 2008. Tefl 2. Jakarta: Universitas Terbuka.

    Tarigan H.G. 1990. Speaking Practice. Jakarta: CV. Mandiri.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/socratic_method.

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  98. HOW TO TEACH TRANSLATION
    THROUGH CLASSROOM APPROACH



    RUTIN PURNAMA SARI
    206 323 3731
    INTRODUCTION
    Language is a system of arbitrary vocal symbol used for human communication. A language is what that members of particular society speak, which a society may be plurilingual.
    One of the other language is English. In Indonesia, English is on of important languages that be master by the students. It takes an important role in education as a foreign language, which is taught from elementary, junior high school, senior high school, and university levels. It is a compulsory subject which developeds language skills and the components of language such as grammar, vocabulary, and pronunciation. When we talk about the language skills, we normally refer to listening, speaking, reading, and writing. However there is another skill in language that we seem to neglect namely translation.
    Translation, as a process, is always performed a given direction from a source language (SL) into target language (TL). In learning a language, the skills and the components of language can not be separated one another, because they influences another. Inability to mastery it will result failure to communicate in target language.
    English has been a scientific language. Science and technology are very important in the developing countries like Indonesia. In consequence, translation greatly required. The expansion of knowledge and culture increase the need for translation. Translation is used in many sectors of human activities such as education, tourism, medical, business politic, in offices, bank, factories, shops, hospitals, and markets. Beside, it is also used for reports, papers, articles, books, magazines, and novel. It means translation take place very often in various activities in the world.
    Indonesia students, the ability of translation both from English into Indonesia and vice versa is very important as a bridge to understand the knowledge, science, printed information, to get equivalent information, textual material (Source Language Text, Written message, Source Language Massage), and reproducing the meaning of source language into target language. So, it plays special role for the students. It can be regarded as the most influential in other skills.
    Otherwise, if we see the fact, the students still have difficulties in translation both from English into Indonesia and vice versa. In the language class activities, translation is very useful, but quite difficult to do. According to Way Mouth, in Malay (1990: 5) says that, the translation become difficult, boring, and frustrating to do because: the students must do translation individually without any introduction from the teacher, the materials of the translation are not suited to the general needs of the language learner, and it is not communicative activities because it involved no oral interaction.
    Because of that, teaching translation in classroom very useful.

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  99. - Learner groups work on translating different sections of a text, and then regroup to connect together their parts into a full text, with suitable connecting language.
    - Learners bring in examples of L1 language (in their own country) or L2 (on another country) for discussion and translation.
    - Learners bring in short texts/proverbs/poems and present them to the class, explaining why they like them. These are then used for translation.
    Comparisons
    - Learners work in groups on short texts then regroup and compare their versions, before producing a final text. This can then be compared with an ‘official’ published version.
    - Learners translate and then other learners back translate, then compare versions and discuss why there are differences.
    - Learners look at ‘bad’ translation and discuss the causes of errors.
    - Ask learners to find different kinds of texts for comparison and translation. For example: technical texts.
    Learning Procedures
    1. Teacher divided the students become some groups, each group has member 4 students.
    2. Teacher gave a text to each group.
    The text materials can be like as: humor, scientific, or economic text.
    3. Then, teacher asked to students
    Learner groups work on translating different sections of a text, so each of group not translating whole of text.
    4. Next, the students begin to translate the text with stage analysis, the student analyze the text to get the textual or contextual meaning of the text.
    - After that, the students do in the stage of transfer, the meaning obtained from the analysis is transferred from the source text to target text.
    - Then, in the stage of restructuring, the students write the target text maintaining the equivalent content, meaning of source text.
    5. Then, the teacher asked to each of group to connect together their parts into a full text, with suitable connecting language.
    6. And last, teacher and students into stage of evaluation and revisit, they sharing and discussion result of translation.

    CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION
    Based on the discussion above, we can conceded that:
    1. Translation is a replacing the text material in source language to target language.
    2. Translation is very important as a bridge to understand the knowledge, science, printed information and reproducing the meaning of source language into target language.
    3. Translation activities in the classroom can practice fourth skills.
    4. Following on form this, translation is nature a highly communicative activity is relevant and that we exploit all possibilities for communication during the activity.

    Then, the writer would like to suggest the readers:
    1. For the teacher of English: the classroom approach will be useful and give beneficial in teaching English to improve the student’s achievement in translation.
    2. For the students: the classroom approach can make the student participate in expressing themselves in translation activities with their partner in the classroom.



    REFERENCE


    Duff, Alan. 1996. Translation. China: Oxford University Press.

    Hartono. 1989. Belajar Menerjemahkan. Jakarta: IMM Press.

    Newmark, Peter. 1991. About Translation. Australia: Multilingual Matters Ltd.

    Rini, Eka Julia. 2007. Difficulties in Translation Text for Beginner Translator Students. Retrieved December 2. 2007. Trom.

    Sakri, Adjat. 1985. Ikhwal Menerjemahkan. Bandung: ITB.

    Simatupang, Maurits. 2000. Pengantar Teori Terjemahan. Jakarta.: Direktorat Jenderal Pendidikan Tinggi Departemen Pendidikan Nasional.

    http://www.petra.ac.id/puslit/journals/dir.php?department_ID=ING.

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  100. DISCUSSION
    A. The Translation Notion
    Translation can be defined as a replacing the text material in source language to target language. Catford in Djuharie (2004: 11) say that translation is replacement of textual material is one language (Source Language) by equivalent textual material in another language (Target Language). It means in translating involved exertion to find equivalent in source language to target language. Translation is changing the forms another language (Larson in Simatupang, 2000: 1).
    According to Mona Baker in Ma’mur (2006: 151):
    “Translation has brought and continue to bring people of different cultural and linguistic backgrounds closer together, it has enabled them to share a more harmonious view of world, it has build bridges of understanding and appreciation among different societies”.

    Translation means as the process of conveying messages across linguistics and cultural barriers. Translation is an instrument of education as well as of truth precisely because it has reach reader whose cultural and educational level is different form (Danila in Newmark, 1988: 6).

    B. The Teaching Translation Through Classroom Approaches
    According to Newmark (1991: 132), in translate a text material the students should be guided by a teacher in classroom activities.
    Classroom approaches
    Translation is a difficult activity to set up and can go badly wrong, producing some of the objections described above. There are many aspects to designing and running tasks.
    It is necessary to plan carefully and fully, and to identify the right kinds of aims. Try to integrate translation with other skills/systems practice where possible. Make sure you have dictionaries and usage sources available. It is important to recognize the problems associated with traditional approaches to translation (a solitary, difficult and time-consuming activity using literary texts) and find solutions to these, such as ensuring these tasks are short (not easy), always working in groups, and maintaining the element of a communication gap where possible.
    Avoid activities which require your learners to use their L1 a lot if you don’t have a consensus in your class.
    According to Duff (1996: 6), there are reasons for using translation in the classroom, they:
    1. Influence of the mother tongue
    Translation helps us to understand better the influence of the one language on the other, and to correct errors of habit that creep in unnoticed (such as the misuse of particular words or structures).
    2. Naturalness of the activity
    Translation is a natural and necessary activity. More so, indeed, than many of the fashionable activities invented for language learners. Outside the classroom – in offices, banks, factories, shops, and airports.
    3. The skills aspect
    Language competence is a two-way, not a one-way system. We need to be able to communicate both ways: into and from the foreign language.
    4. The reality of language
    The proper material of translation is authentic, not ‘made up’ language. And all language is relevant to translation – all styles and registers of both speech and writing.
    5. Usefulness
    As a language learning activity, translation has many merits. Chief among these are:
    a. It is an activity which, by its very nature, invites speculation and discussion.
    b. Translation develops three qualities essential to all language learning: accuracy, clarity, and flexibility.
    c. Depending on the students’ needs, and on the syllabus, the teacher can select material to illustrate particular aspects of language and structure with which the students have difficulty in English.
    d. Translators will always be needed.
    Some ideas for classroom activities

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  101. Language Teaching Seminar
    Assignment (paper presentation)

    CHAPTER I
    INTRODUCTION


    English is an international language which has important role in developing human resources. It used largely by people around the world in many aspect of life. We also find that almost all of information is in written of English. Like newspaper, magazines, scientific book and so on. Then in spoken also such as news, report and so on. Therefore, in Indonesia English is taught as a foreign language and it is used after the mother and official language. It also has been taught to the students from kinder garden to university level.
    It is realized that English plays very important role in the major aspect of life in this globalization era. It is most widely spoken in the world with more than 500 hundred million people. There fore, it is ready to assume its role as the global language. It’s influence is in increasing with the advance of information and technology which has evidently accelerated the explosion of knowledge. In creasing the speed of communication for various purposes and gradually created us global culture.
    The aim of teaching English is to improve students’ four skill in using English, namely reading, writing, listening and speaking to improve these skills grammar is one of the most important aspects in learning English. It is a foundation to help students in learning English, and practice English language appropriately and correctly.
    According to Setiadi (2008 : 3.2) that knowledge of grammar is considered to be the central area of language system. So, by understanding grammar well, the students will be able to their daily communication correctly.
    In listening if students know the grammar rules of the material, they will be easier to understand what the material that they heard in learning process. The grammar also has function in other skills like reading, they will be able to understand the text dearly, in writing they will be able to write their idea in written form correctly and in speaking they will be able to use the appropriate words or sentence in their speaking. So the communication among of them become understanding well.
    One important part of grammar is verbs from. The verbs has important role to understanding grammar well. Verbs explain about what the subject doing and us the time when the subject do. In English, the verb consist of simple past, past participle, simple present, and present participle.
    Teaching verb form is not easy in reality. In fact English teacher got some difficulties in teaching the material of verb. The problems come from students lack of understanding verb and they don’t have comply facilities. So, their mark in grammar task, especially in verb material is still low.
    This case need a solution to get out from the problem, where the teacher can motivate their students with certain techniques in teaching grammar. According to McKay in Setiadi (2008 : 3-2) that there are three view to teach grammar. They are : explanation, providing in practice and at last giving opportunities to real communication.
    Based on the explanation above, the writer interested to explain about the Mc. Kay view in teaching grammar. T5his paper will give explanation about;
    1. What the technique of Mc. Kay view in teaching grammar
    2. How to apply this technique in learning process.

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  102. continue foci
    CHAPTER II
    DISCUSSION

    A. Definition Of Grammar
    It is widely acknowledged that language has pattern and regularities. Which are used to convey meaning, some of which make up is grammar. Knowledge of grammar is considered by Mary ling list to be the central area of the language system around which the other areas such as pronunciation and vocabulary revalue.
    According to cook in Setiadi (2008 : 3.2) that grammar is often called the “Computational System” that relates sound and meaning. This also suggests that students learn English as a second or foreign language need to be provided with good knowledge of grammar. So, the students can finally use the language fluently in both spoken and written forms.
    Larsen freeman is Setiadi (2008 : 3.6) stated the grammar is not about the form, while grammar does indeed involve the from, in order to communicate, and language users need to know the meaning of the forms and when to use them appropriately.

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  103. 5. Present participle
    Present participle is a verb added by-ing suffix. It is used in present progressive tense and past progressive tense. Beside that is also as aspect ( be + ing). Some times, present participle also has function as a gerund when it acts as a noun.
    e. q : 1. I'm writing a right now.
    2. Budi is eating
    3. My hobby is swimming

    C. The Mc. Kay View
    As the explanation at the page before, that according to Mc. Kay there are there steps technique in learning and teaching grammar. He suggested in Setiadi (2008 : 3.2) that there are there different views on what it means to teach grammar. The first view is that teaching grammar entails the formal explanation of grammar rules. While learners who receive a great deal of explanation will end up knowing quite a lot about the language, they will not necessarily be able to put the language to communicative effect. The second view is that teaching grammar is basically matter of providing learners with practice in mastering common grammatical patterns thought a process of analogy. The third view is that teaching grammar thought giving students opportunity to use English in a variety of realistic situation.
    C. Teaching verb forms by using Mc. Kay view step technique
    a. Explanation technique
    Teacher first explain the rules of the grammar material that teacher to students. The explanation must be understanding clearly by all of students, from the basic material to detail some of example.
    e. q : explanation about the verb from
    Teacher must explain about the mean of verb forms, the kind of them. And then the examples and rules each of verb from that use in English.
    b. Providing practice through process of analogy
    Providing practice through process of analogy is the technique hat giving of task based on grammar material then the teacher ask student to understand it and do the task correctly. In this step the students try to imagine and analysis of the grammar rules of the task that had given by the teacher.
    Example : the grammar rules about verb forms
    1. I usually eat bunch at cafeteria (simple present, habitual habits)
    2. I went to Japan last holiday
    c. Giving students opportunity to communicate in realistic situation
    The last step is giving students opportunity to communicate in English based on realistic situation. The communicate can practiced by dialogue, or conversation. It based on grammar rules that have learned.
    Ex : verb forms
     Students about their daily activities in a group through conversation.
     Students have dialogue with their friend bout their last holiday or their experiences in a long time ago.

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  104. B. Verb Forms
    According to wiener in Divo (2009 : 7) that all of verb construction are farmed of five principle parts of verb, they are infinitive, present form, past form, past participle and present participle.
    Addition by Azar (1941 : 21) that there are principle parts of verb they are simple form, simple past, past participle and present participle.
    The conclusion verb in English have five forms. The verb from will described bellows :
    1. Infinitive
    Infinitive is primary form of verb, in its usage infinitive is usually accompanied by “to” to express intention or objective
    Addition by Fika, Mun and Warib in Divo (2009 : 8) that infinitive is a verb basic form and all of the verb must be usage “to” in front of the verb.
    2. Present form
    It is used in simple present tense. According to Azar (1941 : 21) that simple present tense +in the form that found in a dictionary. It is the base form with no endings on (no final -5, ed, or-ing). Beside that I used to expresses daily habits or usual activities.
    ex.: 1. usually eat lunch in cafeteria
    3. Past form
    Past from is a verb form that indicates the past period of occurrence. In past form, the regular verb is added by –d, or-ed suffix and irregularly formed the verb is change, e.q: buy in past form is bought.
    e. q : 1 bay a book yesterday.
    4. Past Participle
    As in past form, regularly form of past participle is added by-d, or-ed, and irregularly form of past participle may different from past from.
    Azar (1941 : 21) stated that past participle is one of the participle parts of verb. Is it used in present perfect and past perfect. For example, I have finished may work and I had finished my work.

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  105. CHAPTER III
    CONCLUSION

    Based on the explanation of the papers before, writer concludes that Mc. Kay view in teaching grammar (explanation, process of analogy, and giving students opportunity to communicate in realistic), this technique can apply to teach grammar, in order to make the student understand the material clearly. Because the first step "EXPLANATION", Give the students basic knowledge of the grammar material, then their basic knowledge will be deep by the process of analogy in grammar task from, and at last is opportunity to communicate in realistic situation, it make them can use the grammar rules in English in their realistic situation, they will be able to communicate appropriately.
    This paper is still lack of any side. So, the criticism and suggestion to build it better next, is very needed.


    END OF FOCI

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  106. Teaching Grammar with Games in the ESL Classroom
    By
    Hajrianto


    A. Introduction
    Teaching is an activity which is involved the teacher to the specific activity purposed to improve student ability in the material relevance. The English teacher absolutely has to consider the method to make the students understand and recognize the content of the material available.
    The most effective method in the recent time is games aproache, Arif Saricoban and Esen Metin, authors of "Songs, Verse and Games for Teaching Grammar" explain how and why games work for teaching grammar in an sESL classroom. They say, "Games and problem-solving activities...have a purpose beyond the production of correct speech, and are examples of the most preferable communicative activities." They go on to explain that grammar games help children not only gain knowledge but be able to apply and use that learning.
    Additionally, games have the advantage of allowing the students to "practice and internalize vocabulary, grammar and structures extensively." They can do this through repeated exposure to the target grammar and because students are often more motivated to play games than they are to do deskwork. Plus, during the game, the students are focused on the activity and end up absorbing the grammar subconsciously.
    While games are motivating for the students, probably the best reason, according to Saricoban and Metin, to use games is that "the use of such activities both increases the cooperation and competition in the classroom." Indeed games can be used to add excitement through competition or to create bonding between the students, and between the students and teacher.
    Aydan Ersoz, author of "Six Games for the ESL/EFL Classroom" also explains more reasons why games do work for teaching grammar. Learning a language requires constant effort and that can be tiring, but Ersoz outlines two good reasons why games should be included in the classroom:
    * Games that are amusing and challenging are highly motivating.
    * Games allow meaningful use of the language in context

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  107. continue hajri..
    B. The things have to be considered by the teacher
    When we looks for games to use in the classroom, don't just pick something to be a "time filler" that does not have any linguistic purpose. It is possible to have a fun game that is educationally sound, however. To find out if the game is educationally sound, think about these questions posed by Hong:
    1. Which skills do the games practice?
    2. What type of game is it and what is its purpose?
    3. Does the difficulty level of the game mesh with the students' ability level?
    4. Does the game require maximum involvement by the students?
    5. Do the students like it? Do you like it?

    To add to these questions also ask yourself:
    1. What specific vocabulary or grammar are you introducing or practising with this game?
    2. Can you keep control of your class and play this game?
    3. What materials do you need for the game and can you obtain these easily?
    4. What controls, if any are needed, will you have in place to ensure the children are on track?
    5. Competition is not always appropriate, and it is not appropriate at all for five year olds and under. Can you play a game for the sake of the game and not in order to define winners and losers? Here are some ways play down competition: Do not keep score all the time, make sure the teams tie, play down any "winning", praise everyone, play until everyone has finished - the winners are those who finish, not those who finish first, and everyone finishes. Etc.

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  108. 3. Variation
    You want to make sure your activities appeal to all sorts learning styles, so even when you are using games to teach grammar you'll want to vary the types of things you expect your students to do. For preschool and early elementary grades, stick to games that use talking, listening, looking and moving. For middle and high elementary, you can continue to use games that use talking, listening, looking and moving and add in some games that use writing and reading.

    Going along with this same idea, think about what children learn from the easiest. Television commercials are short and catchy and the most memorable are the ones that are repeated often. Keep these characteristics in mind when you are teaching grammar to your students - incorporate these characteristics into your daily activities.
    4. Respect
    To make games work for you and your class, be sure to operate your class with the utmost respect - both to and from students. This includes teaching your students from the very start that you expect respect at all times. This includes giving encouragement and following the rules.

    That said, you'll need to make sure the rules for all of the games are clear and manageable. When possible, explain the rules in the students' native tongue so that they all know what is expected of them. When there is an environment of respect in the classroom, the students will feel safe enough to participate in the games so that they can get the most educational value out of them.

    Towards the end of elementary school, you can start introducing competitive games, but only if the class is respectful and it shouldn't be the main focus of the game.
    6. Routine
    Even if you only have your students for a short time every week, establishing a routine will help the class go smoothly. Children of this age (preschool through elementary school) thrive on routine and if they know what to expect next, they will be more able to participate in what's going on now. Set up a schedule for the type of activities you'll be doing at any given time throughout the class whether it is a game, story or song or whatever you want to do. Then, when you are planning your class, plug in the appropriate activities to each section of time. You should also leave a little time at the end of the class period to allow the students to clean up and gather their things as well as time for you to recap the class, praise the students and tell them good-bye.

    You can also designate a "sign" to use to signal to the students when it is time to change activities such as clapping or signing a specific song so that they know it's time to return to the circle, table or desks.
    7. Nurture
    Perhaps the most important thing you can do with your students is to nurture them everyday. For each child in your class, find something you like about him or her and be sure to tell him or her. Be encouraging, patient and kind while playing games and participating in activities and they'll like you as a teacher and a person which will in turn help them get excited about your class and what you have for them to do everyday.

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  109. C. The steps to teaching grammar by games
    1. Organization
    The first thing you should do when start teaching a preschool or elementary school ESL class is to figure out how to organize your class. For the younger students you'll want to change your activities every five to ten minutes because they have shorter attention spans. If you don't change your activities, they'll soon start losing interest. As you get towards the higher elementary grades, you can expand the time you spend per activity. The best way to gauge this is to pay attention to your class for the first few days to see what length of time works the best for them. Additionally, try to have everything ready to go before the students enter the classroom. That way you can go from activity to activity with minimal downtime. This is essential as you can lose control of the class if you do not keep them occupied.
    2. Expectations
    If you notice that your class is getting noisy or rambunctious, it's time to change activities. Kids of this age like to be active; in order to balance out the energy levels in the classroom, alternate between active activities and quiet activities.

    Be careful how you use activities that require fine motor skills - or more importantly pay attention to your expectations for activities that require fine motor skills. Children in preschool and early elementary are just learning to write in their own languages. This is not the best time to expect them to write in a foreign language as well. As they progress through elementary school, however, you can begin using games and activities that require them to write small amounts.

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  110. C. Teaching Grammar With Games
    Goal To identify the 4 types of sentences easily ... declarative, interrogative, imperative, exclamatory
    First, explain there are four (4) different types of sentences that you will conquor one at a time. We took a sentence type a week. At the end of the second week (Friday), I typed up a series of sentences mixing up the Declarative and Interrogatory sentences. Then, I handed the child the paper. My daughter would silently read the sentences and did the appropriate acting out (as described below). By the end of the third week, I mixed up Declarative, Interrogatory, and Imperative sentences and typed them up handing them to my daughter. Again, my daughter would silently read the sentences and did the appropriate acting out (as described below). The 4th and final week, I mixed up Declarative, Interrogatory, Imperatiave and Exclamatory sentences. Again, my daughter would silently read the sentences and did the appropriate acting out (as described below). I taught this process in kindergarten and my children NEVER forgot it! In fact, my children taught all the neighborhood children the Types of Sentences Game!

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  111. 2. Interrogatory
    Please remember that many grew up with a lot of WWII movies where Nazi's were interrogating prisoners to find out information. Ja! With this in mind, again search or come up with our own sentences. (Realize, of course, that you can race each other to come up with sentences!). The Interrogatory sentences, in order to count, have to be done in a German accent, a click of the heels, a in a very stern voice saying "Zis ist an interrogatory sentence .... (I hope this does not offend anyone --- again, many grew up with WWII movies). For example, "Zis is an interrogatory sentence (heels clicking), Vhen vill ve eat lunch? Zis ist an interrogatory sentence." (Translation: When will we eat lunch?) Again, if your child(ren) missed any part of this process, it does not count and it now becomes a race to see who can do this process first.
    3. Imperative
    For this type of delightful sentence, explain that kings and queens used imperative sentences (ok, so this might be stretching, but it works). Our family purchased cheap tiara-type crowns around Reformation Day (aka halloween). Whenever a child ran across an imperative sentence in their reading, they had to quickly: put on the crown, put the left hand on their waist, point with their right finger, look down their nose, stand on the kitchen chair and say the sentence in an imperious voice. For example, "This is an imperative sentence, Clean your room. This is an imperative sentence." If any one of these things were missing, it didn't count and the race was on.
    3. Exclamatory
    Explain to your children what silent movies were like (i.e., over dramatic, over done sign language, etc.). You may even want them to watch the film Singing in the Rain with Gene Kelly, Donald O'Connor, and Debbie Reynolds so your scholar(s) may gain an understanding of the work involved in changing from silent movies to talkies. This film does a brilliant job at illustrating the difficulties as well as the changes in acting styles. The silent movies tended to utilize a lot of gestures and over emphasized body posturing. (Actually, I used Singing in the Rain to introduce two new vocabulary words -- histronics and melodramatic.) Have your children over emphasize gestures of joy, fear, excitement, anger, etc., but add in an appropriate voice --- whatever the sentence calls for. For example, "This is an exclamatory sentence, Alas ! and Alack ! I must clean the house! This is an exclamatory sentence. (Note: For sentences like this, my children would "faint" on the couch.)
    4. Recommendations
    Upon completing two (2) types of sentences and each time thereafter, test your children from the books they are reading to identify each type of sentence as it comes along. As your children learn all four sentences, it becomes a total riot listening to them read a paragraph as they will first read one sentence in the paragraph in their normal speaking voice and, then, re-read the sentence with its proper accent and gestures. This process becomes absolutely hilarious!

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  112. Note: I have given you several declaratiave, interrogatory, imperative and exclamatory sentences sentences to get you started in the Sentence Fun PDF File worksheet.
    1. Declarative
    In a southern belle voice accompanied with appropriate mannerisms (e.g., female = fluttering eye lashes, etc., male = swaggering, etc.). The student will say, "Why I do declare ..." and then give an example of a declarative sentence. Go through readers, books that are currently being read for fun, etc. to find declarative sentences. Every time someone comes across a declarative sentence, they have to say in a southern belle voice with the accompanying mannerisms, "Why I do declare ... ", say the sentence and (still in a southern belle voice/mannerisms) say it was a declarative sentence. If they missed any part of this process, it doesn't count & it now becomes a race to see who can do this process first. For example, "This is a declaratiave sentence, The day was bright and shiney. A declarative sentence." If the child fails to do the mannerisms or voice (even if the child has correctly identified the type of sentence), it does not count.

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  113. BIBLIOGRAPHY
    Ersoz, Aydan. Six Games for the ESL/EFL Classroom. iteslj.org/Lessons/Ersoz-Games.html.
    Hong, Lin. Using Games in Teaching English to Young Learners.
    iteslj.org/Lessons/Lin UsingGames.html.
    Bacha, Joel. Play and Affect in Language Learning.
    Saricoban, Arif and Esen Metin. "Songs, Verse and Games for Teaching Grammar."
    iteslj.org/Techniques/Saricoban-Songs.html.


    END OF HAJRIANTO

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  114. The aim of teaching for the reader is to comprehend and to react to what is written. However reading is not easy to master because the reader should have ability to comprehend the text. Reading requires a familiarity on the part of the reader with the two fundamental building blocks of the particular language i.e., structure and vocabulary. Between the two building blocks, structure is more important because if the sentence is structurally in correct, then the reader will not understand the text. However, if he does not know the meaning of a word, he can find it in a dictionary.
    Reading is used to be the principal aim of most foreign language courses. The reading skill is given priority over other language skills that has been developed and evaluated through textual analyses. When the students are learning to read a foreign language, their mind should be functioned in that language. To implement this particularly at the elementary level, the students should be introduced at widely spaced intervals and they should be accompanied with the definitions in the target language.
    In teaching reading, the teacher should enable the students to interpret ideas and thoughts of the whole text. In fact, the emphasis of reading course is on the development of reading skills in the language that the students learn. The main weakness of any reading course is that when carefully words by reading for completing comprehension are practiced exclusively. It is clear that teaching reading does not only focus on decoding the text is components such as words, phrase, and syntactic structures, but also the ability of understanding the text it self.
    To improve the students’ ability, the teacher has to train them systematically, for instance, how to find the main ideas and specific information of the text, as well as to draw conclusion and to make summary of a text in effective way. If the students are not able to do these, they will be frustrated and the frustration will influence their achievement.
    Some researches point out that cooperative learning has many advantages especially in teaching reading. By doing this method, students have the same opportunity to reach their goals. They could work together in the classroom to help each other (Jhonson and Jhonson). Cooperative learning experiences, compared with competitive and individualistic ones, promote higher achievement, greater motivation, more positive interpersonal relation among the students, and more positive attitude toward the subject. With the amount of research evidence available, it is surprising that classroom practice is very highly oriented toward individualized and competitive learning.
    By applying cooperative learning in the classroom, it is hoped that at the end of the study in reading comprehension, the students are able to comprehend reading. Based on the argument, cooperative learning is considered as an effective method in teaching reading comprehension.
    From the background above, the writer is interested in carrying out paper entitled: “Teaching Reading Comprehension by Using Cooperative Learning of Jigsaw Method. This paper would like to discuss:

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  115. IMPROVING READING COMPREHENSION BY USING COOPERATIVE LEARNING OF JIGSAW METHOD
    BY
    SIGIT SUTRISNO

    A. Introduction
    English is an important subject to learn because it is an international language. Many countries use English as first language and foreign language. In 1997, Science Citation Index reported that more 95% articles were written in English (http:/books.google.com/books). In Indonesia, it is a foreign language which is taught from elementary school, junior high school, senior high school, and university levels. The fundamental objective of teaching English regularly is based on the development of the ability to communicate ideas in spoken and written language for the graduates.
    It is realized that English plays a very important role in the major aspects of life in this globalization era. It is most widely spoken in the world with more than millions people. The researcher knows that English is use in Africa, America, Asia, Europe, and Oceania (http:/books.google.com/books?). Regarding to the fact, it can be assumed that English is a global language. Its influence is increasing with the advance of information and technology, which has evidently accelerated the explosion of knowledge. Increasing the speed of communication for various purposes has gradually created a global culture. This global language will contribute a great deal to one’s success in this information era.
    In learning English, the students should master four skills, which are essential for the purpose of communication. In English Curriculum as stated by Safitri (2008:1) there are four skills that should be mastered by the students such as; listening, reading, speaking, and writing. One of those skills which has an important role in learning English is Reading.
    In fact, reading is clearly one of the most important skills in many instances around the world. The researcher may argue that reading is the most important language skill, particularly in cases where students have to read English material for their own specialist subject.
    In general, the aim of teaching reading is to develop the students' ability to read the material, get information and understand about text.

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  116. • What is Cooperative Learning of jigsaw method?
    • What is good of cooperative learning of jigsaw method?
    • How to applying cooperative learning of jigsaw method is classroom?
    B. The Concept of Cooperative Learning
    1. The Definition of Cooperative Learning
    According to Akhmad Sudrajat (2009), Cooperative learning is a successful teaching strategy in which small team, each with students of different level of ability; use a variety of learning activities to improve their understanding of a subject. Each member of a team is responsible not only for learning what is taught but also for helping teammates learn, thus creating an atmosphere of achievement. Students work through the assignment until group members successfully understand and complete it.
    Slavin (1985:2) states that cooperative learning refers to a variety of teaching methods in which students work in small groups to help one another learn academic content. Eggen and Kauchak (1996:277) state that cooperative learning is a cluster of instructional strategies that involves students working collaborate to reach common goals.
    Roger states that cooperative learning is the instructional use of small group so that students work together to maximize their own and each other’s learning. (http//www.cooperation.org/pages/overviewpaper.html)
    In brief, the writer can define that cooperative learning is the process of the learning group working together in order to share their understanding of the solution of the task or of the material. It is a good technique for the learner because it can be easier for the learner to take the goals.
    2. The Basic Element of Cooperative Learning
    According to Isjoni (2009:41), there are five basic elements in cooperative learning:
    a) Positive Interdependence ( sink or swim together)
    Positive interdependence exists when students perceive that they are linked with group mates in such a way that they cannot succeed unless their group mates do and that they must coordinate their effort with the effort of their group. When positive interdependence is clearly understood, it is established that:

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  117. 1) Each group member’s effort re required and indispensable for group success.
    2) Each group member has a unique contribution to make to join effort because of his or her resources and / or role and task responsibility.
    b) Face-to-face interaction (promote each other’s success)
    1) Orally explaining how to solve problem
    2) Teaching one’s knowledge to other
    3) Checking for understanding
    4) Discussing concepts being learned
    5) Connecting present with past learning
    c) Individual and group accountability (no hitchhiking !no social loafing)
    The third essential of cooperative learning is individual accountability, which exists when the performance of individual students is assessed. A common way to structure individual accountability includes:
    1) Keeping the size of the group small. The smaller the size of the group, the greater the individual accountability may be.
    2) Giving an individual test to each student.
    3) Randomly examining students orally by calling on one students to present his or her group work to the teacher or to the entire class
    4) Observing each group and recording the frequency with which each member contributes to the group work.
    5) Assigning one student in each group the role of checker. The checker asks other group members to explain the reasoning and rationale underlying group answers.
    6) Having students teach what they learned to someone else.
    d) Interpersonal and small-group skills
    The fourth essential of cooperative learning is the appropriate use of interpersonal and the small-group skills. In order to coordinate efforts to achieve mutual goals, students must:
    1) Get to know and trust each other.
    2) Communicate accuracy and unambiguously
    3) Accept and support each other
    4) Resolve conflict constantly.
    e) Group Processing
    The five essential component of cooperative learning is group processing. Effective group work is influenced by whether or not the group reflects. Group processing may be defined as reflecting on a group session to:
    1) Describe what member action processing was helpful and unhelpful.
    2) Make decision about what action to continue or change.
    3. Jigsaw Method in Cooperative Learning
    There are many different approaches in cooperative learning. Most of them involved in students of four member mixed ability to grouping. One of the cooperative learning approaches is jigsaw.

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  118. Conclusion And Suggestion
    Based on the discussion above, the writer can conclude that cooperative learning of jigsaw method is possible be implementing in teaching reading. Cooperative learning of jigsaw method is making the students free to share their ideas. They can work together with the other friend and they can understand about the problem and the solution in process of learning reading comprehension.
    In addition, the cooperative situation in learning makes most students response positively to the application of cooperative learning of jigsaw method in studying reading comprehension. They enjoy working together with their friends in a group and helping each other in understanding the materials.
    Then, the writer would like to suggest the reader:
    1. The teacher of English at the school should use cooperative learning of Jigsaw Method as an alternative teaching method especially in teaching reading comprehension.
    2. The success of cooperative learning does not simply by asking the student to sit together and work cooperatively, but they are the result of thoughtful teaching planning and preparation. Therefore, the teachers have to prepare the process of teaching cooperative learning of jigsaw method.
    3. Since the students have little or no experience on cooperative learning of jigsaw method, the process of teaching is not effective. So, the teachers have to introduce it to the student.
    4. For the students, the researcher suggests the students to improve the positive interdependence among members of group. The success of learning depends on the effort of the entire group member. In other words, each student has an important role in achieving the learning goal. That is why a positive interdependence is one of the important elements that should be developing in the cooperative learning of jigsaw method.
    5. Cooperative learning has several methods such as; Student Team Achievement Division (STAD), Jigsaw, Group Investigation (GI), Rotating Trio Exchange (RTE), and Group Resume. This research has investigated Reading Comprehension ability by jigsaw. Thus, the writer suggests to the readers to investigate reading comprehension ability by the other methods in cooperative learning.






    REFERENCES


    Isjoni. 2009. Cooperative Learning. Bandung : PT.Alphabetha

    Paul D Eggen and Kauchak, Donald P.1996: Strategies for Teaching. United Stated of America. A Simon & Schruster Company.
    Roger T.and David W. Jhonson : Cooperative Learning. http://www.dossuwanda.wordpress.com. Asses on 30 Novermber 2009

    Slavin, Robert E. 1986: Cooperative Learning. United Stated of America. Allynard Barron.
    Safitri, Waslurachim. 2009: improving students’ ability in reading by using story aloud technique. Thesis: Unpublished STAIN Bengkulu.
    Sudrajat, Ahmad. Cooperative Learning – Teknik Jigsaw. Http://wwwakhmadsudrajat.wordpress..com . Asses on 30 Novermber 2009.
    Http://www.cooperation.org/pages/overviewpaper.htm.com asses on 30 Novermber 2009.

    Http://www.books.google.com. Asses on 19 februari 2010.

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  119. IMPROVING STUDENTS' SPEAKING ABILITY BY USING ASK AND ANSWER

    By:
    ANNISA TURROHMAH


    A. Introduction

    In Indonesia, English has a very important position. Because it is taught as the first foreign language. As the first foreign language English is the most common language which is used after the official language. There are four skills needed to be mastered by the students. The are listening, speaking, reading, and writing. In learning a language, the four skills can not be separated one another, because each skill influences another skills. Inability to master four skills will result failure to communicate in the target language.
    Aside from the other skills, speaking is one of the important roles in mastering English because he/she can express their ideas and thought to the listener. Brown and Yule (1995:

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  120. 13) state that the purpose of the speaker in speaking is primarily to communicate his message rather than to be nice to the listener.
    In teaching learning process, the student’s participation is very important. The students must practice English by speaking but in fact, a lot of students in the class room do not in value actively. They reluctant to answer the teacher’s question, Safnil (1991: 67) another possible reason why students are unwilling to speak English is that lack of the words and phrases to express their ideas in English.
    Based on the explanation above, the teacher will try to solve this problem in other to make the students be active and make students to speak up in the class room answering questions. Because most the students are reluctant and shy to speak up. Furthermore the students do not the ways how to speak.

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  121. - What is ask and answer?
    - What is procedures ask and answer?
    - How to teach of ask and answer?

    B. Definition of Speaking
    Speaking is the productive skill in the oral mode. There are three kinds of speaking situations in which we find our selves:
    - Interactive
    - Partially interactive, and
    - Non-interactive.
    Interactive speaking situations include face to-face conversations and telephone calls, in which we are alternately listening and speaking, and in which we have a chance to ask for clarification, repetition, or slower speech from our conversation partner. Some speaking situations are partially interactive, such as when giving a speech to a live audience, where the convention is that the audience does not interrupt the speech. The speaker nevertheless can see the audience and judge from the expressions on their faces and body language whether or not he or she is being understood.
    Some few speaking situations may be totally non-interactive, such as when recording a speech for a radio broadcast. Here are some of the micro-skills involved in speaking. The speaker has to:
    - Pronounce the distinctive sounds of a language clearly enough so that people can distinguish them. This includes making tonal distinctions.
    - Use stress and rhythmic patterns, and intonation patterns of the language clearly enough so that people can understand what is said.
    - Use the correct forms of words. This may mean, for example, changes in the tense, case, or gender.
    - Put words together in correct word order.
    - Use vocabulary appropriately.
    - Use the register or language variety that is appropriate to the situation and the relationship to the conversation partner.
    - Make clear to the listener the main sentence constituents, such as subject, verb, object, by whatever means the language uses.

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  122. - Make the main ideas stand out from supporting ideas or information.
    - Make the discourse hang together so that people can follow what you are saying.
    According to Tarigan H.G (1990: 15), speaking that is also called by oral communication or word to express the mind, idea, and feeling.
    According to Bambang (2008: 614) there are many different techniques to create meaningful context for speaking practice in English. For example: ask and answer, describe and draw, discussion, guessing, remembering, miming, ordering, completing a form or questionnaire, and role play.
    The examples of the procedure of each different technique speaking in the classroom are:

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  123. a. Ask and answer
    Ask the students to describe their photos to the front on the board. For example “This is my sister, she is 17 years old”. Help the student by asking questions, for example “Whose is this?” is this brother?”
    b. Describe and draw
    Draw a comic figure in the board with different pictures to the ones on the two posters. Ask learners to describe it, if necessary using speech bubble. Practice the stress pattern taken from the sentence used by the students.

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  124. For example: He/she has got a . . . . . .
    He/she has got . . . . . .
    His/her . . . . . is/are . . . . . .


    c. Discussion
    Ask a few students to make new sentences using, ‘we are both’ and ‘we have both got . . . . . about them selves and other students in the class.
    d. Guessing
    It is best played in groups of 3 or 4, but a demonstration game can be played with the whole class.
    For example: Do you work in door?
    Are you well paid?
    Is it dangerous job?
    e. Remembering
    The teacher may revise any prepositions the learners had problems with by asking individual learners about the location of objects in the classroom.
    For example:
    Teacher : where is my bag?
    Students : It is under the table.
    f. Ordering
    Review any sequences of numbers the learners had problems with practice in three. Teach the students to make this sound by putting their tongue between their teeth and breathing out.

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  125. g. Miming
    Review any pronunciation problems the students had and make yes no questions.
    h. Role play
    Ask a few students to tell the rest of the class about showing the directions.
    i. Completing a questionnaire
    Ask individual students to report back to the whole class on their partners like and dislikes. The teacher may write down the sentence frames up on the board to help them, for example: . . . . . likes . . . . . very much.
    He/she quite likes . . . . .
    He/she doesn’t like . . . . . very much
    He/she doesn’t like . . . . . at all.
    The teacher may also practice schwa sound as this vowel sound is very common in unstressed syllables in English, like in ‘banana’, ‘chocolate’, etc.

    C. The Teaching Speaking at Elementary School
    Teaching English to young learners is full of fun. Furthermore, in teaching speaking for beginners, to encourage them to speak English the teacher should have a set of specific technique, methodology and lesson plan, in order the techniques that the teacher uses are suitable with the students’ level, interest, and progress with the correct technique the learners are encouraged and motivated to speak automatically.
    According to Mc Graw Hill Companies (2004: 100), there is much more to teach speaking than simply getting students to talk, however. As with listening, we normally have specific purposes for communicating with others, such as asking the time of the next bus, asking for help at a store, or describing a problem to supervisor.

    D. Definition of Ask and Answers

    The Socratic method (or Method of Elenchus or Socratic Debate), named after the Classical Greek philosopher Socrates, is a form of inquiry and debate between individuals with opposing viewpoints based on asking and answering questions to stimulate critical thinking and to illuminate ideas. It is a dialectical method, often involving an oppositional discussion in which the defense of one point of view is pitted against the defense of another; one participant may lead another to contradict him in some way, strengthening the inquirer’s own point.
    The term Socratic questioning is used to describe a kind of questioning in which an original question is responded to as though it were an answer. This in turn forces the first questioner to reformulate a new question in light of the progress of the discourse.

    E. Procedure Using Ask and Answering
    Setting up
    a. Give all the learners sheets of paper.
    b. Ask them to close their eyes and imagine a photograph of their whole family.
    c. Ask for a volunteer to come to the front and copy his or her photo on the board. Ask him or her to describe the people in the picture.
    d. Then get the students to work in pairs or group telling each other about the people in the photos they have drawn.
    e. Ask the students to describe their photos to the rest of the class.

    F. Conclusion

    Based on the result in the previous chapter, the researcher concludes that the memorizing speaking using concept ask and answer gives positive effect toward teaching speaking and this technique increases the student’s speaking.
    The researcher suggest that sometimes in English teacher need to use technique speaking because it has some beneficial in training students to master speaking.



    REFERENCES

    Setiadi Bambang. 2008. Tefl 2. Jakarta: Universitas Terbuka.
    Tarigan H.G. 1990. Speaking Practice. Jakarta: CV. Mandiri.
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/socratic_method.

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  126. English is important to learn by the people and it is important to know how to speak English and how to use English well in speaking because there are many problem in speaking activities for the students. Ur ( 121 : 1996 ) mentions that there are four problems in speaking ability, namely, inhibition, nothing to say, low or uneven participation and mother tongue use. It is causes why they are not able to communicate. On the other hand, the role of teacher is also important to make the students have self confidence to speak English, the teachers have to choose an appropriate technique in teaching speaking. The environment factor is also make the students difficult to communicate because of their mother tongue.

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  127. IMPROVING SPEAKING ABILITY BY USING DIALOGUE ACTIVITY

    BY
    IRA MARYANI

    A. Introduction
    English plays an important role in developing resources in Indonesia. As an international language, English is very important to learn by the people everywhere in Indonesia, not only the written language but also spoken one, because English is a tool of communicative in the world.
    There are four different skills in English, namely reading, writing, listening, and speaking. Speaking means to express the idea and thought of the speakers to listener. Brown and Yule (1995 : 13 ) state that the purpose of the speakers in speaking in primarily to communicate his message rather than to be nice to the listener.
    In Indonesia, teaching speaking aims to enable the student to communicate their ideas and express themselves in English either at school or out side. The lack of practice put the students into a difficulty to express themselves in English. They even cannot say simple things in English.

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  128. Through dialogue activities every students has a chance to practice their English, by using a dialogue activity the teacher can make the students active and have more participation. Dialogue activities also help the students have motivation in practicing to speak English well and the speaking skills of the students will be improved
    In this paper, the writer would like to discussion about :
    1. What is the nature of speaking ?
    2. What is the importance of speaking ?
    3. What is speaking skill in a foreign language ?
    4. What is the teaching of speaking ?
    5. What is the dialogue activities method?

    B. The Nature of Speaking
    There are many definition about speaking skill. According to Horby (1987 : 826), speaking skill is the ability to use language in ordinary use. Lado ( 1997 : 241 ) in Makdalena ( 2001 : 1 ) explains that speaking skill is the speaking ability to use language in essential normal communication situation and the signaling system of pronoun stress, intonation, grammatical and vocabulary of foreign language at normal delivery for native speaker foreign language.
    Speaking as one of the form of communication means a language to interact between people orally. In speaking people were hoped to be able to communicate their ideas, feeling, and opinions. The goal for the participant in speaking is to make social interaction comfortable and to communicate good will.
    Practicing to speak English is difficulty for most of the students who learned English as their foreign or second language. They are afraid of what they say will be misunderstood by the other people because it was not used in their everyday lives.. According to Brown and Yule (1995:14) that depending upon the complexity of the information to be communicated, however, the speakers sometimes find it difficult to make clear what they want to say.
    Speaking, as an oral communication practice is taught by the student to initiate conversation and make them mastered in speaking English as their foreign language or a second language.

    C. The Importance of Speaking
    In speaking activity students were hoped to able communicate with other people because through speaking ability the students can express their ideas and know more about the information they needed.
    Halliwell ( 1992 ), states the children need to talk, without talking they can not become good talking. In this case teachers should motivate how the students can enlarge their imagination to speak up. By using role play the teachers can construct activity for them selves. The teachers helps the student to make real communication with their friends. The monitor students activity and checks them.
    The students have to realize their weaknesses in English speaking. They should try to speak in order to make their speaking achievement improved. The students should try to practice talking, to be successful in speaking. Ur (1996) mentions that the characteristic of successful in speaking activity; learners talk a lot, participant is even, motivation is high and language is of an acceptable level.
    Speaking activity is also important to learn of course for the students, because with speaking activity can make the students express themselves orally in the classroom. Ur (120:1996) states that a classroom activities that developed learners’ ability to express themselves through speech would therefore seem an important to learn English speaking in that it stimulates conversation, which in turn will encourage more comprehensible input. Through speaking ability the students will gain more input, and if they obtain more input, they will acquire more.

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  129. They are practicing English in they lives. One of the technique in teaching speaking is dialogue. This technique is hoped can make the students practice and communicate their English with other people. Through practicing English is one of the efforts to improve the students speaking achievement. Lubis (1988) states that as a teacher of English, the teacher is not only concerned with developing the student knowledge of structure, grammar, and pronunciation, but they need to teach them how to use the language.

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  130. D. Speaking Skill in a Foreign Language
    In the real life of communication most of the students are afraid of and shy to make mistakes in speaking English as their foreign language. The students are more interesting in learning to write or read. So, their speaking achievement is difficult to be improved. Lubis (1988:10) states that where the students are interesting only in learning to read or write the new language, directed conversation practice has little relevance.
    Every students who studying English as the foreign language has to practice speaking in order to make their speaking achievement improved. The students who learn another language not to have desire to speak it, so they can express their English and get the solution to interact between other people. As Lubis (1988:10) states that most of the students are eager to converse in the new language, and conversation practice therefore assumes primary importance in their learning experience.

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  131. E. Teaching of Speaking
    Speaking is important to learn by the students in order to get more information besides reading, writing, and listening. In teaching speaking there are various ways or technique that may taught by the teacher in effort to improve the students speaking achievement and make the student have chance to converse with other people in the world. The students also have to aware of conventional English. As Lubis (1988:2) states that in order to guide the students of English as a foreign language class in real communication practice the teacher needs to make them aware of the feature of conventional English which native speaker of English use constantly in their daily lives. The students can improve their speaking achievement by using English in their everyday lives.
    The teaching of speaking skills has many types, technique, materials, and activities that make be used by the teacher in effort to improve the speaking achievement of the students. According to Lubis (1988), there are fourteen types of communicative in teaching speaking as follows :
    1. Guessing games
    2. Situational practice
    3. The self-directed dialogue
    4. A mixer
    5. Dialogue
    6. Improvisation
    7. Plays
    8. Readings
    9. Composition
    10. Speeches
    11. Small group discussion
    12. Debates
    13. Group projects
    14. Games

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  132. Teaching speaking in each level has different ways. The difference of teaching speaking is on the curriculum that used by the each levels. On the other hand, choosing the material and the way of teaching is also different for elementary , high school, and university.

    F. Dialogue
    One of the technique to improve the students’ speaking achievement is by using dialogue activities. Dialogue is a short conversation between, at least, two people. Through dialogue activities, it is hoped the students will be participated in speaking orally. Dialogue can be presented as a language model in the manipulative phase of language learning. There are many procedures of dialogue to help the students improve their speaking achievement. Lubis (1988:43) states that one of the procedures of teaching speaking is :
    1. Prepare a situation
    2. Dictate it to the class
    3. Announce that each student writes his own dialogue around this situation.
    4. Collect the paper
    5. Correct any error
    Teaching speaking through dialogue in order to improve the students speaking achievement of course give the students have to participate in the classroom. The improvement of speaking achievement of the students will be supported by practice talking, and participate to the whole class. Ur (1996) mention that the character of a successful speaking activity ; learners talk a lot, participation is even, motivation is high, and language is of an acceptable level.
    Sometimes some students are not ready to this situation. Because of the technique of teaching speaking is not appropriate for them. Through dialogue activities the students still have feel afraid and shy, it also influenced by their first language or their mother tongue.

    G. Conclusion And Suggestion

    Based on the discussion above, we can conclude that :
    1. The dialogue technique is one of variation in teaching to improve the students’ speaking achievement
    2. The dialogue technique enables and encourages students to talk about their own experience by using their background knowledge in the classroom.
    3. The dialogue activities in speaking class can increase the student’s motivation, and participation in teaching and learning process
    4. The dialogue give a chance to the students to be active in the classroom. So, the goal of learning English as a foreign language could be attained well
    Then, the writer would like to suggest the readers :
    1. For the teacher of English : the dialogue technique will be useful and give beneficial in teaching English to improve the student’s achievement in speaking
    2. For the students : The dialogue technique can make the student participate in expressing themselves in speaking activities orally with their partner in the classroom











    REFERENCES

    Brown, G. Yule, G.1995. Teaching The Spoken Language. Cambridge
    University Press.
    Halliwel, Susan, Logman. 1992. Teaching English In Primary Classroom. London.
    Hornby, AS. 1974. The Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary of Current English. London. Cambridge University.
    Lubis, Y. 1988. Developing Communicative Proficiency in The English Foreign Language (EFL) Class. Depoartement Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan Direktorat Jendral Pendidikan Tinggi. Proyek Pengembangan Lembaga Pendidikan Tenaga Pendidikan.
    Malley, Allan. 1996. Role Play. London. Oxford University Press.
    Ur, Penny. 1996. A Course in Language Teaching. Cambridge University Press.

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  133. IMPROVING STUDENTS' VOCABULARY ABILITY
    BY USING CONCEPT MAPPING
    TEACHING TECHNIQUE



    By: DWI HANDAYANI
    NIM : 206 323 3711


    1. INTRODUCTION
    Vocabulary is the important aspect in communication. Without vocabulary we can not speak, write and understand what we are reading and listening. Palmer in Tarigan (1991: 4) states that vocabulary is one of the most important aspect for the foreign students in learning a language. But is does not mean that other component are to be ignored such as phonology, grammar, cultured etc.
    Even though the students have mastered English vocabulary well, it is not guarantee for them to use English language perfectly. Their vocabulary is just the basis for learning English. the students who do not learn grammar along with vocabulary will not be able to use the language for communication.
    For the first year students of SLTP, English is a new subject. It is a primary subject which must be taught in school. However, problems and teaching English still exist, because it is completely different from the Indonesian language in many aspects, namely, the system of vocabulary, structure etc.
    According to the Curriculum “Pendidikan Dasar” GBPP SLTP (1994), the objective of English teaching at the first year is:
    “Dengan kemampuan kosa kata awal lebih kurang 500 kata bahasa yang sesuai dengan tema dan pokok bahasan yang telah ditentukan, siswa dapat memiliki keterampilan berbahasa (membaca berbicara dan menulis).”

    Based on the objective above, at the end of the first year students are expected to have at least 500 words to support their reading, listening, writing and speaking. But to master vocabulary is not easy. Al-Kufaishi (1988: 42) says that vocabulary is one of major problems for English foreign language. Based on my field observation the students still have difficulty in memorizing vocabulary, specially the difficulty in recalling vocabulary that has been learnt. Besides, the material presented in the text book used by some teacher is sometimes not so interesting.
    Based on the fact above, it is necessary for teachers to find out and apply an efficient and effective technique which can make students easily and rapidly understand the meaning of words that they have ever heard, read or known.
    Some of the technique in teaching vocabulary are grouping, sequencing, songs, pictures, mapping etc. In this investigate the researcher focused on teaching vocabulary technique is concept mapping.
    - What is concept mapping?
    - What is procedures of concept mapping?
    - How to teach of concept mapping?

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  134. TEACHING SPEAKING TRHOUGH PERSONAL PICTURE

    BY
    MUHAMMAD YEVAN


    A. Introduction
    English language is very important for us, because English is international language. So, English language can be used by people as communication between countries. Therefore, each person were emphasized to had compentence English language. In order to master in using English language, we must be compentence four skill in English Language like Writing, Reading, Speaking and listening. Especially to speaking is base of communication, so we should learn it. If we want to be master speaking, so we should always to practice speaking.
    In school, most of the students are reluctant and shy to speak. In this case, English teachers are responsible to teach speaking to their students. Therefore, teachher should find the best ways and techniques of teaching english.
    There are many techniques of teaching speaking, but teachers should choose technic that can make students glad to study. One of the good techniques to teach speaking is teaching speaking through picture, because with the picture students can make opinion about the picture and can develope that opinion. Threfore in this chance, I am very interest to presentate about ”Teaching Speaking Through Personal Picture”. Why I choosed personal picture? because I want to make more specific, if I want to choose the picture, so picture is very much.

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  135. 2. DISCCUSION
    A. Definition of Vocabulary
    There are various definitions of vocabulary. According to Manser (1995: 461) vocabulary is total number of words in a language, vocabulary is the total number of words which (with the rule them) make up language. Based of the definition of vocabulary stated above, it can be concluded that vocabulary is the number of words that join together to be a meaningful sentence. Vocabulary is a foundation to communicate, write and read. And also it is important for the students to improve their knowledge. Otherwise, without vocabulary no one can speak or understand language. There is no languages are exists without vocabulary because mastering vocabulary is a basic matter in learning foreign language.
    From the statements above, we have know that mastering vocabulary is more important than other because it is the first in learning foreign language. The suggests that if we give a high priority to vocabulary development, we are not there by abandoning grammar/others. Rather, vocabulary can serve as a stepping stone to learning and using grammar.
    B. Teaching Vocabulary
    There are some skills or criteria that are needed in teaching vocabulary.
    1. Pronunciation and Spelling
    According to Manser (1995: 331), pronunciation is the way in which a language/word is spoken. Manser (1995: 399) stated spelling as the in which a word is spell. In teaching vocabulary, the students have to know what a word sounds like its pronunciation and what it looks like its spelling. The students should be mastered both pronunciation and spelling the word, because they are primary for the first time.
    2. Grammar
    Grammar also needed in teaching vocabulary, for examples, we want to teach the past form, if this irregular (bring, brought), when we teach plural form (mouse, mice). So, the students have to master the rules of forming the words and sentences.
    3. Collocation
    We have seen now words ‘couple up’ to form compound, and how they ‘hunt in packs’ in the shape of multi word units. Two words are collocates if they occur together with more than chance frequency. When introducing words like decision and conclusion, for example. We may note that you take or make that one, but usually come to the other.
    C. Some Techniques in Teaching Vocabulary
    1. Picture Teaching Technique
    Picture is painting, drawing, photograph especially as a work of art (Manser, 1995: 310). Picture can be a kind of visual material that express idea

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  136. or information in concrete way. Picture teaching technique is an effective way to motivated the students. Picture also help the teacher and make teaching process become easier.
    2. Game Teaching Technique
    Manser (1995: 171) stated that game is a form of play or sport with rules. Sometime we found the boredom situation in the class, it is because the monotone technique in teaching vocabulary. Game teaching technique can stimulate the students motivation to study because they were fun and create good communication to each other in groups.
    3. Storytelling Teaching Technique
    Storytelling is an ancient story or art that told one to another and become almost universal. In selecting the story, must to know the students level in order to avoid highest or lowest story for each levels. Don’t forget with clear pronunciation when we told the story. In order the students enjoy and clearly in listening and caching the.
    D. Definition of Concept Mapping
    Concept mapping provides a framework for organizing conceptual information in the process of defining a word. The concept map also supports vocabulary and concept learning by helping students internalize a strategy for defining and clarifying the meaning of unknown words. Students write the concept word or target word being studied in the center, and then work outward into the boxes writing words that describe the target word. The framework of the concept map contains: category/class the concept or target word belongs, properties of the concept word or target, and examples of the concept or target.
    In a concept map, each word or phrase in connected to another and linked back to the original idea, word or phrase. Concept maps are a way to develop logical thinking and study skills, by revealing connections and helping students see how individual ideas form a larger whole.
    Concept mapping is a type of knowledge representation. Jonassen & Grabowski (1993, p. 433) state that structural knowledge may be seen as a separate type of knowledge. “Structural knowledge provides the conceptual basis for why. It describes how prior knowledge is interconnected.... Structural knowledge is most often depicted in terms of some sort of concept map that visually describes the relationships between ideas in a knowledge domain.” Representing knowledge in the visual format of a concept map allows one to gain an overview of a domain of knowledge. Because the nodes contain only a keyword or a short sentence, more interpretation is required of the reader, but this may be positive. Concept mapping can be used for several purposes:
    - To generated ideas (brainstorming)
    - To communicate complex ideas
    - To aid learning by explicitly integrating new and old knowledge
    - To assess understanding or diagnose misunderstanding.

    Example:










    E. The Procedures of Using Concept Mapping
    1. The researcher express a certain topic to the student.
    2. Researcher make concept mapping on the whiteboard.
    3. Researcher asks the students to look at the concept mapping.
    4. Researcher asks the students to guess the concept mapping.
    5. Researcher writes the word in the mapping.
    6. Researcher reads the words and asks the students to repeat.
    7. Researcher give exercises.
    8. Researcher asks the students to collect student exercises.
    9. Researcher checks up exercises.

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  137. 3. CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION
    Based on the result in the previous chapter, the researcher concludes that the memorizing vocabulary using concept mapping gives positive effect toward teaching vocabulary and this technique increases the student’s vocabulary.
    The researcher suggest that sometimes an English teacher need to use technique vocabulary, because it has some beneficial in training students to master vocabulary.

    REFERENCES


    Bright and Mc Grebor. 1990. Teaching English as a Second Language. Longman.

    Leach and Startik. A Communicative English. Longman.

    Manser, Marti H. 1995. Oxford Learners’ Pocket Dictionary. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    http://cmap.ihmc.us/publication/reachpaper.

    Sitorus. 2001. English Vocabulary. Bandung: CV. Pionir Jaya.

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  138. B. Definition of Speaking
    Speaking is one of the means of communication, by speaking someone can express their idea and feeling. One Function of Speaking is to communicate ideas in situation where the person can speak each other. Danwer Rebeca (1993) state that : Speaking is a process that involves several stages, beginning with the speker’s ideas and ended with understanding of those ideas by the learner ; the speaker thinks, decides what he or she is going to say , and puts the ideas iinto words and sentences of a particular language.
    In general it might have been agreed that speaking is very difficult and complex skill to learn specially by second language learners. The difficulties are certainly related to difficulty to teach it particularly in getting students to peak up. Hilda Puspita and Mulyadi (1996 :31) stated : the difficult part of the task of a teacher in teaching speaking lie on how to encourage learners to speak up. Concerning with this case, Haris (1974:108) stated that no language skill is so difficult to asses with precisism as speaking skill.

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  139. Edmundo J. Mora (1998: 28) states that pictures can be used to give students of English as foreign language an opportunity to practice the language in real situation in which they can use it to communicate their ideas.
    According to Ellen Lipp (1989 : 2) the pictures should have enough cues go that students can figure out the meaning of new word and sentence structure.Byrne (1982:1) defined that picture is a material that can be seen like drawings, photographs, posters, sliders, cartons, diagrams, tables and charts. Beside, pictures as kind of visual material that can express the idea or information in a concrete way. It then could be conclude that picture is visual material that represent the original one. Those things that they might have some across around them.
    Base on the opinion above, it can be concluded that using pictures as language teaching material for teaching speaking and increasethe frequency of students and can create positive atmosphere in the classroom. The have the freedom to supply their own statement and Ideas.

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  140. C. Technique of Teaching Speaking
    Speaking is very important in language teaching, some experts suggest several techniques that may be applied in English teaching such as : by using dialogue, picture, game.
    Dealing with this study, the researcher will break the technique into the techniques pictures. There are many kind of technique, materials and activities that can be used in teaching speaking in a classroom . Before selecting suitable material in teaching speaking, function of material is one aspect that must be considered by a teacher. Actually the function of materials in speaking is to give context. This context will give opportunity for the students to develop their ideas.
    In creating context, there are some components of human physichology must be thought about. Hilda puspita and Mulyadi (1996) listed the components such as ; feeling or emotion or happiness, anger, sadness. Kind of materials must cover the sense.

    D. Using Personal Pictures in Teaching Speaking

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  141. Especially In paper, I will explain about the personal pictures. Teaching Speaking through personal pictures is one of good method to develop student’s speaking skill. In this method, students describ about someone and guess job or what is he/she doing through the picture. So, students can explain their ideas freely about someone in the picture. Students will not find difficulties to speak up, because students often to do it. This method is very adventages for students, because can train student about how to describe someone and students will know vocabulary that is used to describe someone.
    In the Indonesia, usually teaching peaking with personal picture is used in secondary school until university students, because they had many vocabulary. But elementary school still little had vocabulary.

    E. Procedure of Teaching speaking through personal picture
    1. Teacher gives the personal Picture to students.
    2. Teacher gives explanation item that can described by students from personal picture.
    The following Kind of item should explained :
    a. The body someone : from his hair until leg
    b. The character : We can guess character someone trhough the personal picture
    c. The Job : by the performance of the someone we can guess job of that someone
    d. Condition : We can guess condition of the someone
    e. And etc.
    3. Teacher give example in speaking to describe the personal picture with talking.
    4. Teacher asks students to practice one by one to describe personal picture on the paper has been availabled by teacher front of the the classroom.
    5. The teacher must give support for students to speak up, in order to students are not afraid to make mistakes. Therefore, the other students may not give trouble or don’t give saying badly for speaker of students.
    6. The teacher give value for students
    Base of the value can looked from three item
    a. Developing opinion
    b. Suitable of word
    c. Structure of the sentences

    F. Adventages Teaching speaking trhough Personal picture
    1. By personal picture, student can be interesting to speak up, because students can tell someone freely.
    2. Student know what should explained in telling someone.
    3. Students know the sentence or phrase that is used telling someone
    4. Students can improve his vocabulary
    5. The teacher can be easly to to teach by personal picture
    6. The teacher know students’ skill to speak and can improve student’s mistake in speaking.

    G. Conclusion
    Teaching speaking is very difficult, but through personal picture, teaching speaking can be easly. Because through personal picture , teaching speaking will be Interesting. With the picture, the students can describe their ideas, opinion and feeling about someone and guess job or what is he/she doing through the picture front of the other students. In oder to teaching speaking can be easly, the teacher should make rules in the classroom, that students are not shy if he make mistakes. so they can speak freely. Therefore, that method is very adventages for student to improve student’s vocabulary and speaking skill.

    rEFERENCES

    Dauwer, Rebecca. M. 1993, Accurate English : A complete Course in Pronounciation, prentice hall, Regents, p 1 – 2
    Z6. Motivating Language Learner to speak by Using Photogrhaph, Network Vol. 2 July
    Lipp ,Ellen,1989. Picture Book : English teaching Forum, no 1 january, A Content – Rich Resource for Teaching Adult and Chilldren.
    Mora,Edmundo. J.1998. Using Picture Creatively. English Teaching Forum, no 24 October.

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  142. - What are procedures of songs?
    - How to teach of songs?
    2. DISCUSSION
    A. The Concept of Vocabulary
    The vocabulary is total number of words in a language. And vocabulary is a word that be used as foundation to communicate, write, and read, and also it is important for the student to improve their knowledge. Ur (1997 : 60 ) states that vocabularies are the words that are taught in the foreign language.
    The most important thing in learning foreign language especially English is learning vocabulary. Vocabulary is the basic unit of language learning, without vocabulary we can’t speak, write, and understand what we are reading and listening. There is no language are exists without vocabulary is a basic matter in learning foreign language. From that statement, we must mastery of vocabulary because mastery vocabulary is more important than other. It is the first step in learning foreign language.
    In preparing the materials that will be taught to the student, first of all we have to know the learners are, so we can choose appropriate material that suitable to the level of learners. And the teacher must find and apply effective and efficiency technique.
    B. The Concept of Song
    Most of people especially young men like to sing. Through songs they can express their sadness, happiness, fun sorrow, and pray or plea for the God. Songs have been involved in our life, culture, nigh, and day. Song is material composition intended or adapted for singing; especially one is rhymed stanzas, a lyric, a ballad. Suyanto ( 2009 : 50 ) said that song is gathering the melody words with rhythm and tone. Characteristic song for children:
    1. There are words and phrase
    2. The drill language
    3. Easy remember
    4. Fun intoned and fast
    5. Action songs
    6. Interesting.
    Ostojic ( 1987 : 51 ) said that through his experiment proved that song made language class become more interesting and powerful, and this prompted the students to study the language in more original and creative way. Those opinion prove that song not only motivate the student individually but also the whole class, so that the practice will be more interesting and the class is stimulated being cheered up because song also provides a break from textbook, Hermina ( 2000 : 9 )
    From all those opinions, what Puasa said can be a conclusion, Puasa ( 2007 : 44 ) states that :
    1. a song adds variety to a lesson
    2. a song adds to the enjoyment of learning the language and therefore aids motivation
    3. a song help the learner remember the language
    4. a song involved the whole class and promotes the maximum participation

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  143. IMPROVING STUDENTS’ SPEAKING ABILITY
    BY USING ROLE PLAY


    BY: Marya Sari
    206 323 3750

    1. INTRODUCTION
    A. Background of the Problem
    In the world, there are many kinds of language. One country has one language that different with other countries. With that difference we must know and understand. So we can good communication with other. One of language is English. English as the international language is used by many people around the world whether as a native language or as a foreign language.
    In the study of English, we must know and understand about means the sentence. There are four language skill should be mastered by student. They are speaking, reading, writing, and listening. The base of four skills is vocabulary. Vocabulary is one of the most important aspects, as it serves as a foundation to speak, read, and write in English. In speaking, the student’s vocabulary can affect how well people understand what they say. In the reading, their vocabulary can helps them to understand what the meaning of their reading. In writing, their vocabulary determines how clearly and accurately they express their ideas to others.
    Vocabulary mastery means the knowledge of the word meaning used in certainly language. In this study, vocabulary mastery is the ability of student in mastering word meaning which is shown by their score in the vocabulary test. Usually the student bored, not interested and difficult to remember words in learning English, so the teacher must find out and apply the effective teaching technique which can make the students easily and rapidly understand the English word that they have hard, read, or known. So to make the students interest to study English. According to same expert of English knowledge there are same teaching techniques in teaching vocabulary. They are songs teaching technique, picture teaching technique, and storytelling.
    In this paper, the researcher discuss about song teaching technique because this technique is more interesting. Teaching through song is one of techniques that can be used increase students’ vocabulary in elementary school, because song can improve student’ interest and motivation. Cameron (2001: 395) said that song is a poem set to music, intended to be sung. Song can be used in motivated the student in acquiring the vocabulary. So the teacher must change the technique by using song teaching technique to increase student’s English vocabulary. Another argument for the use of song in teaching vocabulary is the majority of the students are young and likely to be interested in song. National (1985: 22) said that the essential part of vocabulary learning is repetition. So if a song is repeated many times it will help student in memorizing word. And a song has advantages of being memorable and also gives the students pronunciation practice. Based on above, the researcher believed that songs teaching technique is effective to teaching vocabulary in Elementary School.
    In this investigate the researcher focused on teaching vocabulary by using songs technique
    - What are songs?

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  144. Especially In paper, I will explain about the personal pictures. Teaching Speaking through personal pictures is one of good method to develop student’s speaking skill. In this method, students describ about someone and guess job or what is he/she doing through the picture. So, students can explain their ideas freely about someone in the picture. Students will not find difficulties to speak up, because students often to do it. This method is very adventages for students, because can train student about how to describe someone and students will know vocabulary that is used to describe someone.
    In the Indonesia, usually teaching peaking with personal picture is used in secondary school until university students, because they had many vocabulary. But elementary school still little had vocabulary.

    E. Procedure of Teaching speaking through personal picture
    1. Teacher gives the personal Picture to students.
    2. Teacher gives explanation item that can described by students from personal picture.
    The following Kind of item should explained :
    a. The body someone : from his hair until leg
    b. The character : We can guess character someone trhough the personal picture
    c. The Job : by the performance of the someone we can guess job of that someone
    d. Condition : We can guess condition of the someone
    e. And etc.
    3. Teacher give example in speaking to describe the personal picture with talking.
    4. Teacher asks students to practice one by one to describe personal picture on the paper has been availabled by teacher front of the the classroom.
    5. The teacher must give support for students to speak up, in order to students are not afraid to make mistakes. Therefore, the other students may not give trouble or don’t give saying badly for speaker of students.
    6. The teacher give value for students
    Base of the value can looked from three item
    a. Developing opinion
    b. Suitable of word
    c. Structure of the sentences

    F. Adventages Teaching speaking trhough Personal picture
    1. By personal picture, student can be interesting to speak up, because students can tell someone freely.
    2. Student know what should explained in telling someone.
    3. Students know the sentence or phrase that is used telling someone
    4. Students can improve his vocabulary
    5. The teacher can be easly to to teach by personal picture
    6. The teacher know students’ skill to speak and can improve student’s mistake in speaking.

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  145. Thornbury (2002: 8) said that there are some reasons why songs are good to use for teaching vocabulary. First, songs have a great tendency to attract attention of the student. Second, students are often willing to learn to sing a song in foreign language even though they do not understand the meaning of the word. Jayne ( 1983 : 8 ) said that considered some reasons why songs are good in teaching language.
    1. The song is holding the attention and interest of the student.
    2. The song is introducing native and colloquial use of language.
    3. song is presenting cultural phenomena and point of view
    From the opinion above we know that there are many advantages from the use of songs in language teaching. Although songs can be used in language teaching, we should select the songs that will be used. The type of song to teach in our classes will depend on age, interest and learning level of the students. Beside that, the teacher can put English words to familiar melodies from our student’ countries songs. Puasa (2002 : 25) states that some criteria’s of that songs that can be used for language teaching are:
    1. the song should be challenging and interesting from linguistic point of view
    2. the song should be articulated clearly
    3. the song must be likely to entertain and retain the close attention of the students
    4. the song must provide plenty of repetition of the item we are practicing
    5. the song must make the pattern meaningfully
    C. The steps of teaching vocabulary using songs
    The steps of teaching vocabulary with songs were as follow:
    1. The students were asked to listen to the song three times
    2. The students sang the songs by themselves. First with guidance of the teacher, and then without guidance from the teacher
    3. Explain new words from the song
    4. Giving some questions on vocabulary base on song
    D. Example of Song in Teaching Vocabulary
    1. Give It to Me
    I like the orange , I like very much
    If you don’t like it , please give it to me
    I like the apple , I like very much
    If you don’t like it , don’t throw it away

    2. That is a Window
    That is a window , this is a door
    This is a table , that is chair
    This is a floor , this is a wall
    That is a pen , and this is a bag
    3. CONCLUTION
    Vocabulary is one of the important aspects in learning English. In teaching vocabulary, the teacher must find and apply the efficient and effective teaching technique. One of the teaching vocabulary techniques is song teaching technique. Song teaching technique can be used in teaching English to increase student’s vocabularies mastery, because song can improve students’ interest and motivation. And in the selecting the song should be suitable to suitable’ level.
    There are many advantages from the use of songs in teaching vocabulary. One of them is make students’ interest, so the student is happy in learning of vocabulary. Teachers should select the songs that will be used. The type of song to teach in our classes will depend on age, interest and learning level of the student.


    REFERENCE

    Cameron, Lynne. 2001. Teaching Language to Young Learner. Cambridge language Teaching Library. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press.

    Hermina. 2000. Teaching Vocabulary Trough Songs. Unpublished Thesis of FKIP Bengkulu University.

    Puasa, Kuran. 2007. Teaching English Through Pop Song. Bandung : Yrama Widya.

    Tornbury , Scott. 2002. How to Teach Vocabulary. Series Editor: Jeremy Harmer .Malaysia : Longman.

    Suyanto, Kasihani,K.E.2007 . English For Young Learners. Jakarta : PT Bumi Aksara

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  146. IMPROVING STUDENT’S READING COMPREHENSION THROUGH STORYTELLING TEACHING TECHNIQUE
    BY

    SITI SANGADAH


    1. Introduction
    Nowadays, English as international language is very important to learn. It has become compulsory subject from elementary school up to university level. There are four skill which have important role in mastering English, namely, listening, speaking, writing and reading. Reading is one the most important skill in learning a language. Especially for Indonesian student the skill in reading is a tool to get information. The students must know how to be a good reader. According to Nuttal (1996:40), reading is an activity to understand the message from a text and the reader read a text in order to reach the information that is sent by the writer. So, the successful reader is concerned with the meaning of the written language. The students sometime have got the difficulties to find out the meaning of the reading text, so they are not interesting to read, and cannot enjoyable with the reading text. As a teacher, we have to able to build their curiosity to read, because through the curiosity, their motivation to know the meanings of the reading will come out. In this case, the teacher should be able to create the learning condition enjoyable for the students.
    There are many teaching technique in teaching reading comprehension but the writer only focused on storytelling teaching technique to improve student reading comprehension.

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  147. G. Conclusion
    Teaching speaking is very difficult, but through personal picture, teaching speaking can be easly. Because through personal picture , teaching speaking will be Interesting. With the picture, the students can describe their ideas, opinion and feeling about someone and guess job or what is he/she doing through the picture front of the other students. In oder to teaching speaking can be easly, the teacher should make rules in the classroom, that students are not shy if he make mistakes. so they can speak freely. Therefore, that method is very adventages for student to improve student’s vocabulary and speaking skill.









    REFERENCES

    Dauwer, Rebecca. M. 1993, Accurate English : A complete Course in Pronounciation, prentice hall, Regents, p 1 – 2
    Z6. Motivating Language Learner to speak by Using Photogrhaph, Network Vol. 2 July
    Lipp ,Ellen,1989. Picture Book : English teaching Forum, no 1 january, A Content – Rich Resource for Teaching Adult and Chilldren.
    Mora,Edmundo. J.1998. Using Picture Creatively. English Teaching Forum, no 24 October.

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  148. IMPROVING STUDENTS’ SPEAKING ABILITY
    BY USING ROLE PLAY


    BY: MIMI ERNAWATI
    206 323 3720

    1. INTRODUCTION
    Language is one of important way for communication. Without language we can not communicate among people. Many people may use more than one language for it, such as Arabic, France, India, English etc. English is one of foreign language in our country that is difficult to understand. In our country’s’ English is one of subject in the school which learned by the students. It can be in Elementary School, Junior High School and Senior High School even in university. English itself has four skills: listening, speaking, reading and writing.
    In learning a foreign language as English, speaking is one of the most difficult aspect. It is supported by (Gillian & Yule, 1983) in the process of learning a second language, especially spoken language production, learning to talk in the foreign language is often considered to be one of the most difficult aspects of language learning for the teacher to help the students. Sometimes is seems hard to express ideas, opinions and feelings because many factors influence in speaking. The low of self-confidence, lack of vocabulary, lack control of grammar and so on can be hinder language learner from speaking.
    As language learners who had learned English intensively, English language learners should be able to interact orally each other. But in fact most of them did not perform English in their community. They are still reluctant to speak English and prefer using Indonesia language as a medium of communication.
    The comfortable with speaking only shall be achieved by constant practice. L1r (1996) states the problems in speaking activities are inhibition, worried make mistakes, shy and nothing to say. So that, in the classroom, the student must efficiently improve speaking ability.
    Process of teaching learning needs students participation to practice of English. the practicing of English is one of efforts to increase the speaking ability. The students must practice English by speaking. It is necessary to know how to get English well in speaking and how to speak English.
    The students usually did not active in the classroom activity in teaching speaking. To solve and to make the students active in teaching learning process the teacher should have some techniques one of them is by using role play technique.
    Based on explanation above, the writer will explain about role play technique and how to apply this technique in learning process.
    2. DISCUSSION
    A. Definition of Speaking
    Speaking is one of the means of communication. By speaking, some one can express as this idea and feeling. One function of speaking is to communicate ideas in situation where the person can speak each other. So, in English Study

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  149. Nick Peim (1993:13) stated that story telling can be used in teaching and learning process. It is useful for learning. Therefore, there are two reasons that interested in this topic. First, telling the stories can help the students realize that they can find a pleasure in reading, because telling the story is not just makes the student s listen the experience, but also they can interact as the participants to solve the problem of the characters as the plot unfolds. Second, through telling the stories the students can improve their ability to understand the meaning of words and it influences students, motivation to read and write, and their speaking and listening skill as well. Here the teacher plays as a major role in the process of teaching and learning. As a storyteller should learn the story before telling it to students, because to be a storyteller should know some skill in storytelling. Jalago (1992:135) states these story skills in storytelling include: knowing how to begin a story, explaining the setting, describing character, identifying theme of the story sequencing event explaining reaction and concluding the story.

    B. Concept of Reading Comprehension
    Reading comprehension is the capability of understanding what the reader read. In reading the reader needs to perceive and decode letters, understand all of the words, and find out the meaning of the text. The reader’s understanding comes from understanding the words of the text.

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  150. Program, the students have to realize their weakness English speaking. They are speaking ability for creating the effective communication.
    We have the problems; many students in teaching speaking do not take a part in teaching learning process. The students can not communicate their idea as clearly as they would like to. In the classroom a teacher speak more than students. They only listen the teacher’s speech, without understanding what the teacher explains. The students have difficult in speaking, because they do not have enough vocabulary to say something in English. So, the students must be comprehension of words in speaking. Thomson (1996: 875) states that speaking is one of the language skills where students use other words in an ordinary voice. It can help them, how to be perfect in speaking and students must be know the characteristics of successful speaking.
    Ur (1996) states people who know a language, are referred to as speakers of the language. Included speaking of language, as teacher of English by placing these techniques he or she should feel confident that the learners will be encouraged and challenged by the activity, and the more important they can enjoy in speaking learning.
    Further more in teaching speaking for beginner, to encourage them to speak English the teacher should have a set specific technique, methodology and lesson plan, in order that be could teach effectively and successfully.
    Moreover, setiadi (2007), say that speaking is the main part of the speaking activity where the students are exposed to practice the topic introduced in the setting up or in the engage stge.
    Specific technique means that technique that the teacher uses are suitable with the encourage technique. The learners are encouraging technique. The learners are encouraged and motivated to speak automatically as result they will know language be respect to speakers of the language and involved in speaking (Ur, 1996: 120).
    B. The Theory of Role Play
    There are some techniques how to handle students to be always active in class. One of them asks students to practice their activity in pairs. In teaching speaking it is most effective, because by working in pairs they are not ashamed.
    Based on the opinion above, the writer take a conclusion that by role play, student can improve their speaking ability. According to Nation and Thomas (1988), role play is as feature which can be added to a speaking activity. There can be several reasons for adding it.
    Role play: learners act out an imaginary situation. The learners either use a dialogue or the teacher gives them instructions about way to say.
    Role play allows a wider range of language functions and language varieties to occur than would normally occur within a classroom, for example, the language associated with formal occasions like proposing a toast, delivering in academic paper, taking part in meeting, or conducting an interview.
    1. Role play allows exploration of cultural issues, in particular, appropriate ways to behave in certain situations such as when being offered food or drink, when saying no to an offer, or when receiving or giving a gift (Seelye, 1974). In this way role play gives the activity a content learning goal.
    2. Role play can add interest to an activity and by distributing roles can ensure participation in an activity. Role play can result in repetition of a speaking activity by providing a change. For example, if learners have done a ranking activity they can do the same activity again but this time they adopt which will result in a different ranking of the items. In this way role play gives the activity a fluency goal.
    Ur (1996) says that one way to vary the kind of spoken interaction that learners can experience in the classroom by role play. By role play, participants are given a situation or topic.
    Role play:
    Media: simple plant of your town centre, on a poster or on the board.
    Setting up/ engage:
    a. Put up the poster, or draw a simple plan of your town centre on the board.

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  151. b. Write a list of the most important place in the centre on the board, for example: church/mosque, market, cinema, bank, park, restaurant, bus station, police station, zoo, mall, etc.
    C. Applying Role Play Technique in the Classrooms
    There are some steps in applying role play technique, they are:
    1. The teacher asks them to sit in pairs
    2. The teacher gives a topic
    3. The teacher asks them to make a conservation based on the topic
    4. The teacher asks them to discuss first
    5. The teacher asks them to practice in front of class
    6. The teacher monitoring and evaluate their activity.
    3. CONCLUSION
    Based in explanation before, the writer assumed that role play technique in teaching speaking can help the students to express their ideas. It makes the students active and interest in speaking. The writer used role play technique, so the students are more active and communicative in doing their activity.
    Role play is one of technique in teaching speaking. It can be used to motivate the students to express their idea in learning speaking, so the students’ participation can be increased than before.

    REFERENCES

    Halliwel, Susan, Logman (1992), Teaching English in Primary Classroom, London.

    Mahinowski, Barbara M. (1989), English Teaching Forum.

    Murphey, Tim. (1991), Teaching One to One, New York: Longman.

    Nation, I.S.P. and Thomas, G.I. (1988), Communication Activities, Wellington University, New Zealand.

    Porter, Gillian Ladousse (1996), Role Play, Oxford University Press.

    UR, Penny (1996: 131), A Course in Language Teaching Practice an Theory, Cambridge University Press.

    Wingate, Jim (1993), Greeting Beginners to Talk, Prentice Hall International English Language Teaching.

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  152. 1. Finding the main idea of the sentences, paragraph, of the text.
    2. Choosing the important items.
    3. Following the indicates.
    4. Determining the reading element organization.
    5. Finding the visual form of the written.
    6. Drawing the conclusion.
    7. Guessing meaning and the assumption the effect and also the conclusion.
    8. Conclusion what had been reader it.
    9. Distinguishing the fact of the opinions.
    10. Getting information the several of the facilities, like encyclopedia, atlas, and map.

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  153. According to Ur (1996) reading is the process of getting and understanding of some of word from the text. It means that we need to understand some of the words in order to understand the meaning of the text. We gather the meaning from the words we read and the words that we have understood. Reading with comprehension involves not only understanding through the writers mind. Reading with comprehension requires the students to understand detail about the text. It can be interpreted that the important thing in reading is the understanding. Oka (1974:72) states the reading comprehension has the same meaning with silence reading. It has objective to comprehend the writers’ idea and give improves to the students in reading learning. They read without the sound and they can comprehend content of the text which they are reading. According to Taringan (1985:37), reading comprehension program has the aims in order that the students get:

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  154. Jalogo (1992:147) states that the following items should be carefully considered as a storyteller in preparing a story to tell, namely:
    1. Know the story and practice it until there is no change of forgetting it.
    2. Tell the story simply, directly, and body maximum effect
    3. Trust the medium words and the rich heritage of the oral tradition
    4. Pace your telling by changing the tempo when necessary and using pauses effectively
    5. Establish report with your listener to make the story come alive for them

    E. Applying teaching reading storytelling in the classroom
    1. Choosing the stories that are a good match and interesting for the students.
    2. The teacher read the story with storytelling technique and storyteller’s tool from the title until the end, and the teacher choose a simple word, so easy to understand by the students.
    3. In order to make the student understood more, the teacher translate the story into Bahasa Indonesia.
    4. To knowing as far as to be student’s understanding about story, the student were assigned to make summary and retell story with students own word in front of the class.


    F. Conclusion
    Reading comprehension is the capability of understanding what the reader read. And storytelling teaching technique is a technique in teaching English reading comprehension by using short story followed by mimes, gestures, intonation, and expression. And storytelling to children help the children create an atmosphere in which a community of readers and writers get the support they need to share their stories and the storytelling helps students understand and later recall information. So storytelling technique is an effective technique in teaching reading comprehension.

    REFERENCES

    Greenwood, Jean. 1988. Class Reader. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Jalango, Mary R. 1992. Early Children Language Arts. Boston MA: Allyn and Bacon, Inc.
    Nuttal,, Christine. 1989. Teaching Reading Skill in a Foreign Language. London: Heinemann.
    Oka, I Gusti Nugrah.1974. Pengantar Membaca dan Pengajarannya. Surabaya: Usaha Nasional.
    Tarigan, Henry Guntur. 1985. Membaca Expressive. Bandung: Aksara.
    Ur, Penny. 1997. A Course in Language Teaching. New York: Cambridge University.
    Weinstein, C, J. 1992. Understanding and Developing Language Test. Europe:
    Practice Hall Europe

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  155. C. Reading Stages
    According to Greenwood (1988:11), there are three stages in reading. They are: pre-reading, while reading, and after reading. The explanations are as follows:
    a. Pre-reading
    The pre-reading stage the students appetites and stimulate curiosity to read; it can persuade the students that as far as perception or hypothesis is concerned there are not right or wrong answers, only different ones.
    2. While reading
    In this stage, students should be actively engaged in negotiation for meaning students must be involved in activities, which enable them to respond cognitively, emotionally, and imaginatively to imaginative writing.
    3. after reading
    The activities in this section as generated by the text and extend its potential for meaningful language work. The task can not be performed without the text. That is, they can not replace the text. Frequently, they involve the students in detailed revision and scrutiny of the author words, but at all times there is a valid reason for the students to do so, and the various skills being understand and develop in each activity will increase understanding and subsequently pleasure in future reader.

    D. Concept of Storytelling
    Storytelling teaching technique is a technique in teaching English reading comprehension by using short story followed by mimes, gestures, intonation, and expression. Storytelling for children is one of the oldest forms to communication. It has been done by the people especially housewife long time ago. Storytelling itself means telling the story to people or to children. According to Petty and Jensen (1980:144) storytelling is an act of sharing even more intimate then reading to another person or to a group. It must an enjoyable experience for both the teller and listener. Teacher should not to attempt to tell stories that they do not well. Storytelling by the teacher is closely related to the practice of reading to children.
    To tell the stories to the student is not an easy task. It needs special and important preparation. The storyteller should practice the story related to the students’ experience and should have good presentation. Ways in presenting the stories are the essential thing and to be the key that can influence the students’ success in learning. Jalago (1992:147) states that there are two ways of telling the stories. They are traditional storytelling and storytelling with media. The traditional way is only use voice and gesture to share a story but storytelling with media is telling story with flannel-board figures, puppets, pictures and so forth.
    The purposes of telling story to the children is to help create an atmosphere in which a community of readers and writers get the support they need to share their stories (Weinstein, 1992:7) and the storytelling helps students understand and later recall information.
    The storyteller’s tools in presenting the story
    1. Voice
    2. Natural gesture and movement
    3. Sense of timing
    4. Eyes contact
    5. Expressive

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  156. TEACHING VOCABULARY BY USING SONGS TECHNIQUE
    (AT ELEMENTARY SCHOOL)

    BY:
    MARYA SARI


    A. Introduction
    In the world, there are many kinds of language. One country has one language that different with other countries. With that difference we must know and understand. So we can good communication with other. One of language is English. English as the international language is used by many people around the world whether as a native language or as a foreign language.

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  157. In this paper, the researcher discuss about song teaching technique because this technique is more interesting. Teaching through song is one of techniques that can be used increase students’ vocabulary in elementary school, because song can improve student’ interest and motivation. Cameron (2001: 395) said that song is a poem set to music, intended to be sung. Song can be used in motivated the student in acquiring the vocabulary. So the teacher must change the technique by using song teaching technique to increase student’s English vocabulary. Another argument for the use of song in teaching vocabulary is the majority of the students are young and likely to be interested in song. National (1985: 22) said that the essential part of vocabulary learning is repetition. So if a song is repeated many times it will help student in memorizing word. And a song has advantages of being memorable and also gives the students pronunciation practice. Based on above, the researcher believed that songs teaching technique is effective to teaching vocabulary in Elementary School.
    In this investigate the researcher focused on teaching vocabulary by using songs technique
    - What are songs?
    - What are procedures of songs?
    - How to teach of songs?

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  158. In the study of English, we must know and understand about means the sentence. There are four language skill should be mastered by student. They are speaking, reading, writing, and listening. The base of four skills is vocabulary. Vocabulary is one of the most important aspects, as it serves as a foundation to speak, read, and write in English. In speaking, the student’s vocabulary can affect how well people understand what they say. In the reading, their vocabulary can helps them to understand what the meaning of their reading. In writing, their vocabulary determines how clearly and accurately they express their ideas to others.
    Vocabulary mastery means the knowledge of the word meaning used in certainly language. In this study, vocabulary mastery is the ability of student in mastering word meaning which is shown by their score in the vocabulary test. Usually the student bored, not interested and difficult to remember words in learning English, so the teacher must find out and apply the effective teaching technique which can make the students easily and rapidly understand the English word that they have hard, read, or known. So to make the students interest to study English. According to same expert of English knowledge there are same teaching techniques in teaching vocabulary. They are songs teaching technique, picture teaching technique, and storytelling.

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  159. B. The Concept of Vocabulary
    The vocabulary is total number of words in a language. And vocabulary is a word that be used as foundation to communicate, write, and read, and also it is important for the student to improve their knowledge. Ur (1997 : 60 ) states that vocabularies are the words that are taught in the foreign language.
    The most important thing in learning foreign language especially English is learning vocabulary. Vocabulary is the basic unit of language learning, without vocabulary we can’t speak, write, and understand what we are reading and listening. There is no language are exists without vocabulary is a basic matter in learning foreign language. From that statement, we must mastery of vocabulary because mastery vocabulary is more important than other. It is the first step in learning foreign language.
    In preparing the materials that will be taught to the student, first of all we have to know the learners are, so we can choose appropriate material that suitable to the level of learners. And the teacher must find and apply effective and efficiency technique.

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  160. C. The Concept of Song
    Most of people especially young men like to sing. Through songs they can express their sadness, happiness, fun sorrow, and pray or plea for the God. Songs have been involved in our life, culture, nigh, and day. Song is material composition intended or adapted for singing; especially one is rhymed stanzas, a lyric, a ballad. Suyanto ( 2009 : 50 ) said that song is gathering the melody words with rhythm and tone. Characteristic song for children:
    1. There are words and phrase
    2. The drill language
    3. Easy remember
    4. Fun intoned and fast
    5. Action songs
    6. Interesting.

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  161. Ostojic ( 1987 : 51 ) said that through his experiment proved that song made language class become more interesting and powerful, and this prompted the students to study the language in more original and creative way. Those opinion prove that song not only motivate the student individually but also the whole class, so that the practice will be more interesting and the class is stimulated being cheered up because song also provides a break from textbook, Hermina ( 2000 : 9 )
    From all those opinions, what Puasa said can be a conclusion, Puasa ( 2007 : 44 ) states that :
    1. a song adds variety to a lesson
    2. a song adds to the enjoyment of learning the language and therefore aids motivation
    3. a song help the learner remember the language
    4. a song involved the whole class and promotes the maximum participation
    Thornbury (2002: 8) said that there are some reasons why songs are good to use for teaching vocabulary. First, songs have a great tendency to attract attention of the student. Second, students are often willing to learn to sing a song in foreign language even though they do not understand the meaning of the word. Jayne ( 1983 : 8 ) said that considered some reasons why songs are good in teaching language.

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  162. 1. The song is holding the attention and interest of the student.
    2. The song is introducing native and colloquial use of language.
    3. song is presenting cultural phenomena and point of view
    From the opinion above we know that there are many advantages from the use of songs in language teaching. Although songs can be used in language teaching, we should select the songs that will be used. The type of song to teach in our classes will depend on age, interest and learning level of the students. Beside that, the teacher can put English words to familiar melodies from our student’ countries songs. Puasa (2002 : 25) states that some criteria’s of that songs that can be used for language teaching are:
    1. the song should be challenging and interesting from linguistic point of view
    2. the song should be articulated clearly
    3. the song must be likely to entertain and retain the close attention of the students
    4. the song must provide plenty of repetition of the item we are practicing
    5. the song must make the pattern meaningfully

    D. The steps of teaching vocabulary using songs
    The steps of teaching vocabulary with songs were as follow:
    1. The students were asked to listen to the song three times
    2. The students sang the songs by themselves. First with guidance of the teacher, and then without guidance from the teacher
    3. Explain new words from the song
    4. Giving some questions on vocabulary base on song
    E. Example of Song in Teaching Vocabulary

    1. Give It to Me
    I like the orange , I like very much
    If you don’t like it , please give it to me
    I like the apple , I like very much
    If you don’t like it , don’t throw it away
    2. That is a Window
    That is a window , this is a door
    This is a table , that is chair
    This is a floor , this is a wall
    That is a pen , and this is a bag

    F. Conclustion
    Vocabulary is one of the important aspects in learning English. In teaching vocabulary, the teacher must find and apply the efficient and effective teaching technique. One of the teaching vocabulary techniques is song teaching technique. Song teaching technique can be used in teaching English to increase student’s vocabularies mastery, because song can improve students’ interest and motivation. And in the selecting the song should be suitable to suitable’ level.
    There are many advantages from the use of songs in teaching vocabulary. One of them is make students’ interest, so the student is happy in learning of vocabulary. Teachers should select the songs that will be used. The type of song to teach in our classes will depend on age, interest and learning level of the student.

    REFERENCES

    Cameron, Lynne. 2001. Teaching Language to Young Learner. Cambridge language Teaching Library. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press.
    Hermina. 2000. Teaching Vocabulary Trough Songs. Unpublished Thesis of FKIP Bengkulu University.
    Puasa, Kuran. 2007. Teaching English Through Pop Song. Bandung : Yrama Widya.
    Tornbury , Scott. 2002. How to Teach Vocabulary. Series Editor: Jeremy Harmer .Malaysia : Longman.
    Suyanto, Kasihani,K.E.2007 . English For Young Learners. Jakarta : PT Bumi Aksara
    Ur, Penny. 1997. a Course in Teaching Practice and Theory. Series edition : marion William and tony wright. Combridge Teacher training and development. New York : combridge University Press.

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  163. 1. The song is holding the attention and interest of the student.
    2. The song is introducing native and colloquial use of language.
    3. song is presenting cultural phenomena and point of view
    From the opinion above we know that there are many advantages from the use of songs in language teaching. Although songs can be used in language teaching, we should select the songs that will be used. The type of song to teach in our classes will depend on age, interest and learning level of the students. Beside that, the teacher can put English words to familiar melodies from our student’ countries songs. Puasa (2002 : 25) states that some criteria’s of that songs that can be used for language teaching are:
    1. the song should be challenging and interesting from linguistic point of view
    2. the song should be articulated clearly
    3. the song must be likely to entertain and retain the close attention of the students
    4. the song must provide plenty of repetition of the item we are practicing
    5. the song must make the pattern meaningfully

    D. The steps of teaching vocabulary using songs
    The steps of teaching vocabulary with songs were as follow:
    1. The students were asked to listen to the song three times
    2. The students sang the songs by themselves. First with guidance of the teacher, and then without guidance from the teacher
    3. Explain new words from the song
    4. Giving some questions on vocabulary base on song
    E. Example of Song in Teaching Vocabulary

    1. Give It to Me
    I like the orange , I like very much
    If you don’t like it , please give it to me
    I like the apple , I like very much
    If you don’t like it , don’t throw it away
    2. That is a Window
    That is a window , this is a door
    This is a table , that is chair
    This is a floor , this is a wall
    That is a pen , and this is a bag

    F. Conclustion
    Vocabulary is one of the important aspects in learning English. In teaching vocabulary, the teacher must find and apply the efficient and effective teaching technique. One of the teaching vocabulary techniques is song teaching technique. Song teaching technique can be used in teaching English to increase student’s vocabularies mastery, because song can improve students’ interest and motivation. And in the selecting the song should be suitable to suitable’ level.
    There are many advantages from the use of songs in teaching vocabulary. One of them is make students’ interest, so the student is happy in learning of vocabulary. Teachers should select the songs that will be used. The type of song to teach in our classes will depend on age, interest and learning level of the student.

    REFERENCES

    Cameron, Lynne. 2001. Teaching Language to Young Learner. Cambridge language Teaching Library. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press.
    Hermina. 2000. Teaching Vocabulary Trough Songs. Unpublished Thesis of FKIP Bengkulu University.
    Puasa, Kuran. 2007. Teaching English Through Pop Song. Bandung : Yrama Widya.
    Tornbury , Scott. 2002. How to Teach Vocabulary. Series Editor: Jeremy Harmer .Malaysia : Longman.
    Suyanto, Kasihani,K.E.2007 . English For Young Learners. Jakarta : PT Bumi Aksara
    Ur, Penny. 1997. a Course in Teaching Practice and Theory. Series edition : marion William and tony wright. Combridge Teacher training and development. New York : combridge University Press.

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  164. B. Definition of Speaking
    Speaking is one of the means of communication. By speaking, some one can express as this idea and feeling. One function of speaking is to communicate ideas in situation where the person can speak each other. So, in English Study Program, the students have to realize their weakness English speaking. They are speaking ability for creating the effective communication.
    We have the problems; many students in teaching speaking do not take a part in teaching learning process. The students can not communicate their idea as clearly as they would like to. In the classroom a teacher speak more than students. They only listen the teacher’s speech, without understanding what the teacher explains. The students have difficult in speaking, because they do not have enough vocabulary to say something in English. So, the students must be comprehension of words in speaking. Thomson (1996: 875) states that speaking is one of the language skills where students use other words in an ordinary voice. It can help them, how to be perfect in speaking and students must be know the characteristics of successful speaking.
    Ur (1996) states people who know a language, are referred to as speakers of the language. Included speaking of language, as teacher of English by placing these techniques he or she should feel confident that the learners will be encouraged and challenged by the activity, and the more important they can enjoy in speaking learning.
    Further more in teaching speaking for beginner, to encourage them to speak English the teacher should have a set specific technique, methodology and lesson plan, in order that be could teach effectively and successfully.
    Moreover, setiadi (2007), say that speaking is the main part of the speaking activity where the students are exposed to practice the topic introduced in the setting up or in the engage stge.
    Specific technique means that technique that the teacher uses are suitable with the encourage technique. The learners are encouraging technique. The learners are encouraged and motivated to speak automatically as result they will know language be respect to speakers of the language and involved in speaking (Ur, 1996: 120).

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  165. IMPROVING SPEAKING ABILITY BY USING ROLE PLAY

    BY
    MIMI ERNAWATI



    A. Introduction
    Language is one of important way for communication. Without language we can not communicate among people. Many people may use more than one language for it, such as Arabic, France, India, and English etc. English is one of foreign language in our country that is difficult to understand. In our country’s’ English is one of subject in the school which learned by the students. It can be in Elementary School, Junior High School and Senior High School even in university. English itself has four skills: listening, speaking, reading and writing.
    In learning a foreign language as English, speaking is one of the most difficult aspect. It is supported by (Gillian & Yule, 1983) in the process of learning a second language, especially spoken language production, learning to talk in the foreign language is often considered to be one of the most difficult aspects of language learning for the teacher to help the students. Sometimes is seems hard to express ideas, opinions and feelings because many factors influence in speaking. The low of self-confidence, lack of vocabulary, lack control of grammar and so on can be hinder language learner from speaking.
    As language learners who had learned English intensively, English language learners should be able to interact orally each other. But in fact most of them did not perform English in their community. They are still reluctant to speak English and prefer using Indonesia language as a medium of communication.
    The comfortable with speaking only shall be achieved by constant practice. L1r (1996) states the problems in speaking activities are inhibition, worried make mistakes, shy and nothing to say. So that, in the classroom, the student must efficiently improve speaking ability.
    Process of teaching learning needs students participation to practice of English. the practicing of English is one of efforts to increase the speaking ability. The students must practice English by speaking. It is necessary to know how to get English well in speaking and how to speak English.
    The students usually did not active in the classroom activity in teaching speaking. To solve and to make the students active in teaching learning process the teacher should have some techniques one of them is by using role play technique.
    Based on explanation above, the writer will explain about role play technique and how to apply this technique in learning process.

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  166. 1. Role play allows exploration of cultural issues, in particular, appropriate ways to behave in certain situations such as when being offered food or drink, when saying no to an offer, or when receiving or giving a gift (Seelye, 1974). In this way role play gives the activity a content learning goal.
    2. Role play can add interest to an activity and by distributing roles can ensure participation in an activity. Role play can result in repetition of a speaking activity by providing a change. For example, if learners have done a ranking activity they can do the same activity again but this time they adopt which will result in a different ranking of the items. In this way role play gives the activity a fluency goal.
    Ur (1996) says that one way to vary the kind of spoken interaction that learners can experience in the classroom by role play. By role play, participants are given a situation or topic.
    Role play:
    Media: simple plant of your town centre, on a poster or on the board.
    Setting up/ engage:
    a. Put up the poster, or draw a simple plan of your town centre on the board.
    b. Write a list of the most important place in the centre on the board, for example: church/mosque, market, cinema, bank, park, restaurant, bus station, police station, zoo, mall, etc.

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  167. C. The Theory of Role Play
    There are some techniques how to handle students to be always active in class. One of them asks students to practice their activity in pairs. In teaching speaking it is most effective, because by working in pairs they are not ashamed.
    Based on the opinion above, the writer take a conclusion that by role play, student can improve their speaking ability. According to Nation and Thomas (1988), role play is as feature which can be added to a speaking activity. There can be several reasons for adding it.
    Role play: learners act out an imaginary situation. The learners either use a dialogue or the teacher gives them instructions about way to say.
    Role play allows a wider range of language functions and language varieties to occur than would normally occur within a classroom, for example, the language associated with formal occasions like proposing a toast, delivering in academic paper, taking part in meeting, or conducting an interview.

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  168. D. Applying Role Play Technique in the Classrooms
    There are some steps in applying role play technique, they are:
    1. The teacher asks them to sit in pairs
    2. The teacher gives a topic
    3. The teacher asks them to make a conservation based on the topic
    4. The teacher asks them to discuss first
    5. The teacher asks them to practice in front of class
    6. The teacher monitoring and evaluate their activity.

    E. Conclusion
    Based in explanation before, the writer assumed that role play technique in teaching speaking can help the students to express their ideas. It makes the students active and interest in speaking. The writer used role play technique, so the students are more active and communicative in doing their activity.
    Role play is one of technique in teaching speaking. It can be used to motivate the students to express their idea in learning speaking, so the students’ participation can be increased than before.

    REFERENCES


    Halliwel, Susan, Logman (1992), Teaching English in Primary Classroom, London.
    Mahinowski, Barbara M. (1989), English Teaching Forum.
    Murphey, Tim. (1991), Teaching One to One, New York: Longman.
    Nation, I.S.P. and Thomas, G.I. (1988), Communication Activities, Wellington University, New Zealand.
    Porter, Gillian Ladousse (1996), Role Play, Oxford University Press.
    UR, Penny (1996: 131), A Course in Language Teaching Practice an Theory, Cambridge University Press.
    Wingate, Jim (1993), Greeting Beginners to Talk, Prentice Hall International English Language Teaching.

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  169. TEACHING VOCABULARY MASTERY THROUGH
    DERIVATIONAL SUFFIXES

    BY
    NUR KORISAH



    A. Introduction
    Vocabulary is one of important items in language. Especially in second language or foreign language, students may know the grammar rules of language and yet not be able to communicate in it. On other hand, with a common of the vocabulary one need in certain situation to apply them where some forms of communication are possible.
    It would tie impossible to learn a language without vocabulary. It means that how important student acquisition of vocabulary to enrich their mastery of English words and improve their skills as well. By acquiring vocabularies students are expected to be able to express their thought more cash and be able to use English appropriately. The acquisition of an adequate vocabulary is the essential for successful second language use, because without an extensive vocabulary, we will be unable to use the structure and functions we may have learned for comprehensible communication. It is clear that the acquisition of adequate vocabulary is a key for the success of learning a foreign language.
    In English, there is a study of words forms. It can to improve of vocabularies. It is morphology. Morphogy connected internal structure of word. For example: sadness consist of two morpheme: sad + ness the there is (-) sign because can not alone. So, sadness have structure internal for parts of sad and ness. This is can said as morphology. Word “sad” just there is one morpheme (Verhaar, 2006: 11).
    In morphology study about word are prefix and suffix. Prefix is affix in front of word. It is mention “prefixes” while suffix is affix in the ending of word. It is mention “suffixes”. One of the sub-system of the morphology is a derivational suffixes. Suffix change the function of word in a sentence. According to Holden (1996: 5) suffix is a group of letters added to the end of word to change its function in the sentences.
    Based on the statement above the writer focused on improving students’ ability in vocabulary mastery through derivational suffixes. There are questions to explanation on improving student’s ability of vocabulary through derivational suffixes. There are:

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  170. 1. What is vocabulary?
    2. What is the concepts of derivational suffixes?
    3. What is procedures of the method?
    4. What is the advantages of improving student’s ability of vocabulary through derivational suffixes?

    B. Definition of Vocabulary
    In order to make the same interpretation about the term of vocabulary in this research, it is important to clarify the term of vocabulary. Vocabulary is the words we teach in the foreign language. It means that all the words, which are taught in the foreign language, is called vocabulary. Also explains that vocabulary is the total number of words that make up a language. From the definitions above, it is clear that through vocabulary students can build up meaningful expression, phrases, and sentences as the language used to express ideas.
    In other words, vocabulary can be defined that the words, which are taught in language with its rule, which make up a language have certain meaning. Vocabulary into two types: active and passive (receptive) vocabulary.

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  171. Active vocabulary are the words we know went enough to use by ourselves, and receptive vocabulary are the words we understand approximately but can not be used freely.

    C. The Concepts of Derivational Suffixes
    a. Definition of derivational suffixes
    Derivational suffixes can happen if the affix can change the words class. Derivational suffixes can be change the function of the words to noun, a verb, an adjective or an adverb. For example: agreement, agree is verb and agreement is noun. Derivational suffixes can change the part of speech too.

    b. Functions of Suffix
    Sitorus (1993: 27) classifies the function of suffix into four:
    1. Suffix to form noun
    2. Suffix to form verb
    3. Suffix to form adjective
    4. Suffix to form adverb
    I). Derivational Suffix used to form a noun
    John Ly on (1997: 109) states noun is the name of any person, place, or thing.
    1. Noun suffix - ment
    Verb Noun
    Manage Management
    Advertise Advertisement
    2. Noun suffix-ance/-ence
    Verb Noun
    Assist Assistance
    Emerge Emergence
    3. Noun suffix (-t) ure
    Verb Noun
    Mix Mixture
    Press Pressure
    Proceed Procedure

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  172. b. Adjective suffix -full
    A number of adjectives are made by adding the suffix –full to nouns this suffix makes a number of adjectives. Full usually means full of or having (Depdikbud, 1970: 321). Examples:
    No Adjective
    Care Careful
    Hope Hopeful
    Meaning Meaningful

    c. Adjective suffix-able
    The word-able an adjective meaning can. Also, we also the word ‘countable’ which means ‘that can be counted’
    Example:
    Verb Adjective
    Count Countable
    Explain Explainable
    Agree Agreeable
    Read Readable

    4. Derivational Suffix used to form an adverb
    Adjective are also use to modify adjective and after formed by adding –ly. A. Pyle and Ellen Muaz (1982: 107) states that adverbs modify verb (except linking verb) adjectives, or other adverbs many descriptive, adjective can be change to adverbs by adding suffix –ly to the adjective, (A. Pyle and Ellen Muaz, 1982: 107) for example:
    Adjective Adverb
    Bright Brightly
    Careful Carefully
    Active Actively
    Smooth Smoothly
    D. Procedure of the Teaching Vocabulary through Derivational Suffixes
    1. The teacher explain the material derivational suffixes
    2. The teacher give the time for students to questions about those material and the teacher answer the question (if any question)
    3. The teacher give assignment for students
    4. The teacher evaluated the student’s answers

    E. The advantages of Teaching Vocabulary through Derivational Suffixes
    Teaching vocabulary mastery through derivational suffixes giving the large advantages. There are:
    1. The add of is student’s vocabulary
    2. The students are easy to remember of vocabularies
    3. The students are easy to translated a word
    4. The students only remember of few vocabularies
    F. Conclusion and Suggestion
    The conclusion in this paper is teaching vocabulary through derivational suffixes is good to improving student’s ability of vocabulary. It cause derivational suffixes can change he meaning or the grammatical function of the word or the part of speech or both.
    The writer’s suggestion are derivational suffixes is good to improving student’s ability of vocabulary and easily of students to remember of vocabulary.










    REFERENCES


    A. Pyle and Ellen an Maaz. 1985. TOEFL, Clifts Notes Inc. USA.
    Department Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan, 1979. English for SLTA. Jakarta
    Holden, Andrian. 1996. English Spelling, With 700 Frequently Missipilled Words. Falcon Press SDN. BHD. Belanda
    John Lyons. 1997. Language and Linguistics: An Introductory, Cambridge University Press
    Manser, Martin H. 1996. Oxford Learner’s Pocket Dictionary, New York. Oxford University Press.
    Sitorus. H. Ronald. 1993. English Vocabulary, CV. Pionir Jaya, Bandung
    Verhar, M.2006. Asas-asas Linguistik Umum.Bulak Sumur, Yogyakarta Gadjah Mada University Press.

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  173. 4. Noun suffix-ion
    In English these nouns in –ion usually express an action or ‘process’, They may be used as countable, uncountable or both (Depdikbud, 1979: 207). Examples:
    Verb Noun
    Suggest Suggestion
    Act Action
    5. Noun suffix-action
    Examples:
    Verb Noun
    Adapt Adaptation
    Alter Alternation
    Form Formation
    2) Derivational Suffixes used to form a verb
    Verb is a word, which denotes an action (John Lyon, 1997: 109). The suffixes combine form base that come from adjective. According to Sitorus (1998: 48) students can find then at text. Especially in science, industry and advertisement.
    1. Verb suffix-ize
    Examples:
    Adjective Verb
    Commercial Commercialize
    Item Itemize
    Central Centralize
    Terror Terrorize
    2. Verb suffix-ify
    Examples:
    Noun Verb
    Class Classify
    Fort Fortify
    3. Derivational Suffixes use to form an adjective
    According to John Lyon, an adjective modifies noun. There are many suffixes in English as adjective which frequently added at noun base but it can use at verb base.
    a. Adjective suffix-al
    Examples:
    Noun Verb
    Incident Incidental
    Function Functional
    Margin Marginal
    Instrument Instrumental

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  174. TEACHING GRAMMAR USING DEDUCTIVE APPROACH
    ( Focused on Teaching Present Proggresive and Simple Past Tense at the Senior High School)
    By : Ulfah Dina Maryati


    A. Introduction
    It is widely acknowledged that language has patterns and regularities which are used to convey meaning, some of which make up its grammar. Knowledge of grammar is considered by many linguists to be the sentral area of the language system around which the other areas such as pronounciation and vocabulary revolve. However important the orther components of language may be in themselves, they are connected to each other throuhg grammar . Grammar is often called ‘the computation system’ that relates sound and meaning. trivial in itself but impposible to managge without (cook,1996). The description given seems to indicate that grammar play an important role in producing grammatical constructions(expression)to convey meaning. This also suggest that students learning english as a second or foreign language need to be provided with good knowledge of grammar so that they can finally the use language fluently in both the spoken and written forms. Teacher of English, in other words, should teach the student grammar proportionally. The problem might be”what it means to teach grammar to the student propely”.
    Based on explanation and question above so the writer would explain the good technique in teaching grammar ( focused on teaching simple progessive tense and simple past tense ) using deductive approach. In this paper the writer beginning at :

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  175. 1. What the meaning of deductife approach?
    2. What the simple present continuous and simple past tense ?
    3. What the procedure in teaching grammar using deductife approach?
    4. What the advantages using deductife approach in teaching grammar ?
    B. The Meaning of Deductive Approach.
    A deductive approach is derived from the notion that deductive reasoning works from the general to the specific. In this case, rules, principles, concepts, or theories are presented first, and then their applications are treated. In conclusion, when we use deduction, we reason from general to specific principles.
    Dealing with the teaching of grammar, the deductive approach can also be called rule driven learning. In such an approach, a grammar rule is explicitly presented to students and followed by practice applying the rule. This approach has been the bread and butter of language teaching around the world and still enjoys a monopoly in many course books and self-study grammar books (Fortune, 1992).
    The deductive approach maintains that a teacher teaches grammar by presenting grammatical rules, and then examples of sentences are presented. Once learners understand rules, they are told to apply the rules given to various examples of sentences. Giving the grammatical rules means no more than directing learners’ attention to the problem discussed.

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  176. Eisenstein (1987) suggests that with the deductive approach, learners be in control during practice and have less fear of drawing an incorrect conclusion related to how the target language is functioning.
    To sum up, the deductive approach commences with the presentation of a rule taught and then is followed by examples in which the rule is applied. In this regard, learners are expected to engage with it through the study and manipulation of examples.
    In the case of the application of the deductive approach, therefore, Michael Swan (cited in Thornbury, 1999, p. 32) outlines some guidelines for when the rule is presented. Among them are:
    a. The rules should be true;
    b. The rules should show clearly what limits are on the use of a given form ;
    c. The rules need to be clear;
    d. The rules ought to be simple;
    e. The rules needs to make use of concepts already familiar to the learners; and
    f. The rules ought to be relevant.
    Most importantly, when the rules are presented in the deductive approach, the presentation should be illustrated with examples, be short, involve students’ comprehension and allow learners to have a chance to personalize the rule.
    C. Simple Present Continuous and Simple Past Tense
    a. Simple present continuous
    1) Form
    [Am/is/are + present participle]
    Examples:
    • You are watching TV.
    • Are you watching TV?
    • You are not watching TV.
    2) Use 1 Now

    Use the Present Continuous with Normal Verbs to express the idea that something is happening now, at this very moment. It can also be used to show that something is not happening now.
    Examples:
    • You are learning English now.
    • You are not swimming now.
    • Are you sleeping?
    • I am sitting.
    • I am not standing.
    • Is he sitting or standing?
    • They are reading their books.
    • They are not watching television.
    • What are you doing?
    • Why aren't you doing your homework?
    3) USE 2 Longer Actions in Progress Now

    In English, "now" can mean: this second, today, this month, this year, this century, and so on. Sometimes, we use the Present Continuous to say that we are in the process of doing a longer action which is in progress; however, we might not be doing it at this exact second.
    Examples:

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  177. (All of these sentences can be said while eating dinner in a restaurant.)
    • I am studying to become a doctor.
    • I am not studying to become a dentist.
    • I am reading the book Tom Sawyer.
    • I am not reading any books right now.
    • Are you working on any special projects at work?
    • Aren't you teaching at the university now?
    4) USE 3 Near Future

    Sometimes, speakers use the Present Continuous to indicate that something will or will not happen in the near future.
    Examples:
    • I am meeting some friends after work.
    • I am not going to the party tonight.
    • Is he visiting his parents next weekend?
    • Isn't he coming with us tonight?
    5) USE 4 Repetition and Irritation with "Always"

    The Present Continuous with words such as "always" or "constantly" expresses the idea that something irritating or shocking often happens. Notice that the meaning is like Simple Present, but with negative emotion. Remember to put the words "always" or "constantly" between "be" and "verb+ing."
    Examples:
    • She is always coming to class late.
    • He is constantly talking. I wish he would shut up.
    • I don't like them because they are always complaining.

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  178. 6) REMEMBER Non-Continuous Verbs/ Mixed Verbs
    It is important to remember that Non-Continuous Verbs cannot be used in any continuous tenses. Also, certain non-continuous meanings for Mixed Verbs cannot be used in continuous tenses. Instead of using Present Continuous with these verbs, you must use Simple Present.
    Examples:
    • She is loving this chocolate ice cream. Not Correct
    • She loves this chocolate ice cream. Correct

    b. Simple Past Tense

    The simple past tense is sometimes called the preterite tense. We can use several tenses to talk about the past, but the simple past tense is the one we use most often.
    In this lesson we look at the structure and use of the simple past tense, followed by a quiz to check your understanding:
    1) How Do We Make The Simple Past Tense?
    To make the simple past tense, we use:
    • past form only
    or
    • auxiliary did + base form
    Here you can see examples of the past form and base form for irregular verbs and regular verbs:
    V1
    base V2
    past V3
    past participle
    regular verb work
    explode
    like worked
    exploded
    liked worked
    exploded
    liked The past form for all regular verbs ends in -ed.
    irregular verb go
    see
    sing went
    saw
    sang gone
    seen
    sung The past form for irregular verbs is

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  179. variable. You need to learn it by heart.
    You do not need the past participle form to make the simple past tense. It is shown here for completeness only.
    The structure for positive sentences in the simple past tense is:
    Subject + main verb
    Past
    The structure for negative sentences in the simple past tense is:
    subject + auxiliary verb + Not + main verb
    Did Base
    The structure for question sentences in the simple past tense is:
    auxiliary verb + subject + main verb
    Did Base
    The auxiliary verb did is not conjugated. It is the same for all persons (I did, you did, he did etc). And the base form and past form do not change. Look at these examples with the main verbs go and work:
    Subject auxiliary verb main verb
    + I went to school.
    You worked very hard.
    - She Did Not go with me.
    We Did Not work yesterday.
    ? Did You go to London?
    Did They work at home?
    Exception! The verb to be is different. We conjugate the verb to be (I was, you were, he/she/it was, we were, they were); and we do not use an auxiliary for negative and question sentences. To make a question, we exchange the subject and verb. Look at these examples:
    Subject main verb
    + I, he/she/it Was here.
    You, we, they Were in London.
    - I, he/she/it Was Not there.
    You, we, they Were Not happy.
    ? Was I, he/she/it right?
    Were you, we, they late?
    2) How do we use the Simple Past Tense?

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  180. We use the simple past tense to talk about an action or a situation - an event - in the past. The event can be short or long.
    The car exploded at 9.30am yesterday.
    She went to the door.
    We did not hear the telephone.
    Did you see that car?
    Here are some short events with the simple past tense:


    D. The Procedure In Teaching Grammar Using Deductive Approach
    a. Teacher give an example.
    Such as :
    Present progresive Simple past tense
    1. he is playing football 2.he played football

    b. teacher’s explanation of the rules (in student’s native language)
    Beginning at :
    1) Teacher give several question to the students.
    Such as :
    What are two verbs in sentence?
    What has been added to the main verb in sentence 1 and 2?etc.
    2) Teacher make summarize from the students’ responses and give important information about the materials or rules to the students.
    c. Student’s practice application of the rules.
    Such as :
    The students practice in contrasting the present progresive and past tense.Teacher “ close the door” and teacher ask “ what am I doing? Students response “ you are closing the door” after that teacher ask “ what did I just do? And then the student answer “ you closed the door”
    d. Teacher make conclusion about the rules of present progresive and simple past tense.

    E. Advantages of The Deductive Approach To Teaching Grammar

    a. The deductive approach goes straightforwardly to the point and can,
    therefore, be time-saving.
    b. A number of rule aspects (for example, form) can be more simply and
    clearly explained than elicited from examples
    c. A number of direct practice/application examples are immediately given.
    d. The deductive approach respects the intelligence and maturity of many
    adult learners in particular and acknowledges the role of cognitive
    processes in language acquisition.
    e. It confirms many learners’ expectations about classroom learning
    particularly for those who have an analytical style.

    F. Conclusion
    Teaching grammar has been a controversial issues. Some people perceive it as essential to teaching any foreign language. It caused to turn up many methods in teaching grammar. One of all is teaching grammar using deductive approach in Senior High School. It is very effective, because in this method the teacher beginning at the sample of the rules. So the student s whose got background knowledge can give their respon about the materials and then understand well.








    REFERENCES
    Bygate,Martin at. al. 1994 . Grammar And The Language Teacher . Britain : Prentice Hall International Ltd.
    http://education.waikato.ac.nz/research/files/etpc/files/2006v5n1nar1.pdf
    http://web2.uvcs.uvic.ca/elc/studyzone/330/grammar/simcon.htm
    http://59.74.71.99/2009/yyjy/jiaoan/Unit%206.doc
    http://www.englishclub.com/grammar/verb-tenses_past_u.htm
    Setiady et.a . 2008.Tefl 2 . Jakarta : Universitas Terbuka

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  181. TEACHING VOCABULARY BY USING GAMES/PLAYS FOR ELEMENTARY SCHOOL
    BY
    UMI KALSUM B.


    A. Introduction
    As an international language, English has become one of the dominant language that are taught almost in all level of education in Indonesia. English has been taught since the beginning of the first year students in elementary school. The aim of teaching English again the students to the skills of reading, writing, speaking and listening and also the student’s vocabulary. Clearly students language skill depend on vocabulary that very have received.
    The ability of using English actively or passively will be effective if someone has enough vocabulary. Without having enough vocabulary, it is absolutely no body can speak, write, read or listening or understand a language. It can be concluded that the ability in mastering vocabulary is a must.
    Allen (1983: 3) states that “vocabulary is one of the most important aspect in learning English. It is important to the students to improve their knowledge and as foundation in speaking, listening, reading, and writing”.
    In this paper the writer would like to discuss about:
    a. Definition of vocabulary
    b. Strategies of mastering vocabulary
    c. Some criteria in teaching vocabulary
    d. Teaching vocabulary through games
    B. Definition of Vocabulary
    In Hornby (1987: 595), vocabulary is the total number which (with the rule connection them) makes up language. While Longman (1993: 1011) defines vocabulary as the total number of words that make up a language. In addition, vocabulary can be defined as the words that are taught in language with its rule, which make up language have certain meaning.
    Furthermore, Allen (1983: 54) suggests that vocabulary is formed to make a language that used by many people as a tool of communication even oral or written. Based on the theories stated previously, it can be concluded that vocabulary is the number of word that joined together to be a meaningful sentence.

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  182. Talking about vocabulary of English, Doff (1996: 19) also devides vocabulary into two categories, they are; passive and active vocabulary. He defines active vocabulary as the words, which students will need to understand, while passive vocabulary is the word which we want students to understand (e.g. when reading a text) but which they will not need to use themselves.
    C. Strategies of Mastering Vocabulary
    Watcyn in Kusrini (2001: 11) states that acquiring or mastering vocabulary can be categorized as the following:
    a. Word grouping activities
    This is a set of words and tells the place of those words under each heading. In other word in this activity, the students make list of vocabulary based on the pleace of the things. In this case the students motivate themselves to group the word that belong to the group. For example: what is in the hospital?what is in the living room? What are there in the kitchen, etc.
    b. Mini Dialogue
    In this activity the learners have to make two line dialogues by matching up question or sentence (A) with suitable response (B). In other word this activity needs the students have to make a short dialogue about something, daily activity, planning for the vocation, asking situation or health, etc

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  183. Example:
    1.Are found in the kitchen..................(the other students mention it)
    2.You can use it to write...................(the other students mention a book, a pen etc)
    D. Some criteria in teaching vocabulary
    According to Ur (1997: 60-61) there are some criteria that need to be considered by the teacher in teaching vocabulary:
    a. Form: pronouncation and spelling
    The learner has to know what a word sound like (its pronunciation) and what its look like (its spelling)
    b. Grammar
    The grammar of a new item will need to be taught if this is not obviosly covered by general grammatical rules.
    c. Collacation
    The collocation typical of particular items is another factor that makes a particular combination sounds ‘right’ or ‘wrong’ in a given context. So that is another piece of information about a new item, which it may be worth teaching.

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  184. c. Who uses what?
    In this activity the learners have to match up objects (A) with the people who uses them (B) or the students match on object with the people who use it.
    d. Make two words
    In this activity the learners arrange the words in three columns to words and the students work in pair or individually. The teacher should tell the students to arrange the parts or example:
    A B C
    Be Ar Rive
    Li Fe Range
    Me Mo On

    From the first row of the table above the students can make two words, it is the word “bear” and the word “arrive” etc
    e. Word Hunt
    This is open-ended activity. The learners can either work individually, in pairs or in small groups.

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  185. d. Aspect of meaning: meaning relationship
    How the meaning of one item relates to be meaning of other can also be useful in teaching. There are various such relationships: here is some of the main one.
    - Synonym :